Provigil For ADHD

 

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is a very sensitive issue. If not well handled, it could cause lower performances in school, higher levels of disorganization and even affect the relationships we have with others. As such, it is very important to keep this condition under control. Therapy sessions go a long way in the treatment of ADHD. However, they can only do so much. In line with efforts from the pharmaceutical industry to improve the lives of those with ADHD, a few drugs have been used for this condition’s treatment. These drugs decrease the symptoms of the disease and allow users to live a more comfortable life overall. They include the following.

  • Provigil
  • Concerta
  • Focalin
  • Ritalin
  • Adderall

Below, we discuss each of these drugs and analyze their efficiency. Findings show that Provigil is the preferred option for ADHD treatment.

History and Brief Description of these drugs

  • Provigil is the brand name for the chemical compound that treats ADHD. This pharmaceutical is referred to as modafinil. The drug was first developed from adrafinil, a drug first manufactured in France. In recent times, however, adrafinil’s use has greatly decreased as people see more benefits from Modafinil’s use. In 1998, modafinil first gained approval of the FDA to treat narcolepsy. From then, the drug’s use amongst those with ADHD has increased as a result of its efficiency and added benefits. The drug treats work shift sleep disorder and can also be used to cure excessive daytime sleepiness associated with obstructive sleep apnea. Provigil also enhances cognitive functions, making it used by a significant part of the population to improve their concentration spans and overall productivity in and out of the workplace.
  • Ritalin and Concerta are different brand names of the drug methylphenidate. They have both been used in the treatment of. Methylphenidate was first licensed in 1955 and has been utilized by the population since 1960. It appears, however, that improvements on the drug’s working in relation to ADHD treatment were deeply sought. The research on other drugs that could potentially be better is a possible reason for the manufacture of Provigil. Apart from ADHD treatment, methylphenidate also affects the working memory, episodic memory, and inhibitory control.
  • Focalin is a brand name for the drug dexmethylphenidate. This drug stimulates the Central Nervous system during its working. Increased stimulation leads to higher concentration levels. As such, subjects using the drug can avoid distractions for longer periods of time and remain relatively focused. This causes the drug to be used to treat ADHD. However, this drug’s benefits in terms of concentration, mental acuity and overall cognitive function are low. As such, treatment to ADHD could result in slower or dragged out improvements.
  • Vyvanse, also sold as Tyvense, Elvanse or Vanvanse is scientifically called Lisdexamfetamine. This member of the amphetamine class is administered to patients with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder so as to increase their focus by heightening their attention span. Additionally, vyvanse treats binge eating disorder. The drug improves users’ working memory, long-term episodic memory and inhibitory control. This amphetamine has been shown to have a positive effect against the development of disorders. However, results for clinical trials found only modest effects in these benefits. Scientists have drawn the conclusion that the drug only contributes a low extent to the improvement and/or healing of these conditions.

 

Uses and Various Applications

Apart from Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, modafinil treats narcolepsy, shift work sleep order and excessive daytime sleepiness associated with obstructive apnea. Provigil has also been proven to treat multiple sclerosis. This conclusion was made after a group of multiple sclerosis patients reported decreased neurological fatigue from Provigil’s use.

During a clinical trial, Cephalon – producers of modafinil- performed a test on 72 people who had various degrees of multiple sclerosis. Patients took Provigil for nine weeks and used standardized scales to report their fatigue levels on their own. Overall, the participants who were taking Provigil said they experienced significantly lower fatigue levels as compared to those taking the placebo. Additionally, those who were using the drug felt more active.

Additionally, Provigil has been used in the treatment of depression, fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, myotonic dystrophy, opioid-induced sleepiness, spastic cerebral palsy and Parkinson’s disease. Provigil has also been used to treat primary biliary cirrhosis. In this and other cases, Provigil improves the body’s reactions to fatigue and daytime somnolence symptoms. This results in higher activity and more energy to focus.

Beyond healthcare facilities, the drug has been used in the following areas.

  • The Military – Provigil’s use not only prevents fatigue but also improves concentration to incredible levels. As a result, troops have used the drug during combat situations. In such cases, military men are undergoing sleep deprivation. Lack of sleep is a recurring factor in long missions where troops can go for days or weeks without sleep. Provigil’s use has been endorsed officially by the French government. In administrative records, The Foreign Legion used the drug for covert operations. India’s Air Force has also confirmed that modafinil use is part of their contingency plans. In the United States, the country’s military has approved of Provigil’s use in selected Air Force missions.
  • Astronauts – Provigil has been used by space explorers on long-term missions at the International Space Station. Since astronauts experience poor quality of sleep, modafinil helps to improve sleep time as well as with circadian rhythms.

Focalin’s sole use has been to treat ADHD. The drug’s stimulating effects cause increased wakefulness and higher activity in the Central Nervous System. As such, people who have ADHD experience higher levels of concentration with ease and can avoid distractions. Additionally, these individuals are able to practice more self-control on their behavior. However, the benefits of this drug vary from individual to individual. This means that this drug could possibly have very little effects towards ADHD treatment for some users.

Ritalin and Concerta work by activating the dopamine receptor D1. This begins the stimulation process that results in benefits to one’s cognitive functions. Taking this drug also causes the indirect activation of adrenoceptor α2. The overall effect of these two processes is improvements in an individual’s working memory and episodic memory. Additionally, these drugs increase stamina and endurance.

Vyvanse is also an amphetamine. Its application causes the same results as Ritalin and Concerta. Despite these drugs being used to treat ADHD, high doses of amphetamines can cause a decline in both athletic performance and cognitive functions. Further, the advantageous effects these drugs have to the brain are minimal. This means improvements from ADHD conditions are not as vast as with the use of other drugs.

 

Side Effects

Modafinil

Provigil’s side effects have been considered minimal across the board. Teva Pharmaceuticals released a report showing one-third of participants in clinical trials experienced headaches after Provigil’s use. 11 percent of the individuals reported having nausea and less than 10 percent of the participants reported other adverse side effects. The effects included the following.

  • Nervousness
  • Diarrhea
  • Insomnia
  • Anxiety
  • Dizziness
  • Gastrointestinal problems.

More serious effects have included severe skin rashes and other allergy-related side effects.

However, these issues are very rarely experienced amongst Provigil users. The use of Modafinil has only resulted in six cases of severe reactions being reported since the beginning of its marketing in the United States up to 2007. Additionally, these cases have been few and far in between – therefore there have been no sudden outbreaks. Qualified medical practitioners and pharmaceutical experts gave give their approval concerning Provigil use, citing the drug as safe and harboring very few, if any, side effects.

Vyvanse

Using this pharmaceutical product could lead to both hypertension and hypotension. Additionally, the drug could cause erectile dysfunction, abdominal pain, appetite loss, nausea, weight loss, blurred vision, excessive grinding of the teeth, nose bleeds, profuse sweating, tics and drug-induced nasal congestion.

Vyvanse has also been known to cause mood swings, insomnia, and self-confidence. Those who use this drug heavily have also experienced delusions and paranoia, which could be detrimental for someone with ADHD.

Focalin

Using Focalin brings about various effects on an individual. Physically, the use of this drug could cause appetite loss, dry mouth, anxiety, nausea, nervousness, insomnia, abdominal pain and weight loss. Focalin is also known to cause irritability, dizziness, lethargy, tics, blurred vision, dry eyes and changes in blood pressure.

Adverse psychological side effects of this drug include depression, confusion, and bruxism. It can also worsen psychosis in psychotic patients and could adversely affect patients with bipolar disorder.

Ritalin and Concerta

These two drugs cause a loss of appetite, dry mouth, anxiety, nausea, abdominal pain, weight loss, blurred vision, chest pain and hyperhidrosis. The drugs can also cause palpitations and changes in blood pressure. Hypersensitivity has also been recorded as a side effect of both Ritalin and Concerta.

Psychological effects include emotional instability, confusion, and depression.

 

Cases of Overdose

As of 2017, the FDA has not filed any death that was caused from the sole use of Provigil. To confirm that the death from overdosing on the drug is impossible, scientists have conducted clinical trials in line with excessive dosages. During tests, participants took up to 1200mg of Provigil per day for 21 days. The known occurrences of one-time 4500mg did not appear to cause life-threatening effects. Only adverse effects were observed inclusive of palpitations, insomnia, anxiety, irritability, confusion, nervousness and nausea.

Overdosing on Focalin is possible. It causes the following adverse effects on the user’s body: confusion, hallucinations, delirium, hyperthermia, sweating, vomiting, agitation, tremors, hyperreflexia, muscle twitching, euphoria, flushing, headache, tachycardia, heart palpitations, cardiac arrhythmias, hypertension, mydriasis, and dryness of mucous membranes.

In some cases, overdosing on this drug has led to circulatory system collapse which could cause death.

Severe doses from Vyvanse have proven fatal. Apart from death, the drug has caused kidney failure, circulatory collapse, cardiogenic shock, cerebral hemorrhage, rapid muscle breakdown, painful urination, tremors, inability to urinate, dilated pupils and the production of excessively acidic bodily fluids.

Excessive doses of Concerta and Ritalin cause hyperthermia, sweating, flushing, headache, tachycardia, heart palpitations, cardiac arrhythmias, and hypertension. Additionally, these amphetamines could cause vomiting, agitation, tremors, hyperreflexia, muscle twitching, euphoria, confusion, and hallucinations.

Some Ritalin and Concerta overdoses have caused circulatory collapse, which could lead to death if not treated immediately.

 

Addiction

Modafinil is a Schedule IV controlled drug. The FDA classified it as such because the drug has a low potential for abuse. This is because Provigil has minimal dopaminergic effects. Since the drug has low levels of euphoria, it is not abused. The drug has very low addiction and dependence liabilities.

Concerta, Ritalin, Vyvanse and Focalin are all highly addictive. Further, Adderall is very addictive – labelled as a Schedule II controlled drug by the FDA. This is as a result of its high rate of causing dependency on those who use the drug.

 

Summary

The following table summarizes the analysis of these drugs that treat ADHD.

Area of Difference Provigil Other Study Drugs
Additional Benefits Apart from the treatment of ADHD, this drug gives numerous additional benefits such as increased wakefulness These drugs are generally centered towards ADHD and have few additional benefits
Addiction The low dependency levels of this drug mean it is not likely to be abused The risks for addiction are very high. Due to the high euphoria levels from these drugs, they are likely to be abused.
Side Effects Provigil has minimal side effects Side effects from the use of these drugs could easily worsen your condition or get you admitted in a hospital
Withdrawal Provigil’s withdrawal symptoms are of low occurrence and end in 30 days The withdrawal symptoms from these drugs can easily impair an individual for months
Cases of overdose No documented case of a fatal overdose due to purely modafinil’s overuse Fatal incidents from the overdose of some of these drugs have been observed

From the above summary, it is quite clear that Provigil is the best choice for the treatment of ADHD. Its stimulating effect, combined with its additional benefits, minimal side effects and low addiction levels means it can be used progressively and under safe environments. As such, individuals who use Provigil would be more likely to recover to greater extents from their ADHD.

Can Adderall Get You High?

 

If you’re looking for the short answer, then yes. Adderall can get you high.

Further, it can also cause addiction and hallucinations. The drug has been included in a lot of pop culture societies for its euphoric effects. Unfortunately, this same drug is also used to treat people with actual diseases. As such, it could pose a threat to them that they probably do not know about. Additionally, off-label users of Adderall to stay awake, increase brain activity and enhance muscular performance could also get the same effects, which could go as far as hallucinations.

Below, we discuss Adderall in depth and leave you to weigh its benefits versus its consequences. Remember, an informed choice is always a better one.

How Does Adderall Work?

Mixing Adderall with amphetamine salts produces a psychostimulant drug. Initially, Adderall was approved in 1996 to treat Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). However, it has also been associated with increasing both cognitive and physical abilities by society.

 

Adderall’s History in Medical Use

Adderall was introduced to the pharmaceutical market in 1996 as an instant-release drug. The generic version for this medication was first sold in markets in 2002.

 

Where is Adderall Used?

Adderall has a wide variety of applications. Some of these include:

Treatment of ADHD – Used for the long-term, Adderall reduces the core symptoms of ADHD. These include hyperactivity, inattention, and impulsivity. Concerning mental aptitude, Adderall improves brain development and nerve growth. Results from MRI scans have shown that long-term treatment using Adderall leads to decreased abnormal brain structure and function in people who have ADHD. Scans have also shown improvements of the right caudate nucleus of the basal ganglia in patients who have ADHD and are using the drug.

Brain Development – A 2015 review found that use of low Adderall dosages produced slight yet unambiguous improvements in the cognition, working memory, long-term episodic memory as well as some aspects of attention. The clinical trials done for this review were on normal and healthy adults. Adderall’s use has also improved memory consolidation. As a result, individuals who use this drug can recall information better.

Motivation – Adderall use has been linked to improvements in the motivation of people to perform certain tasks. The drug also increases wakefulness. Combining these effects results in people using Adderall having more goal-oriented behavior. In line with the motivation, Adderall is used in preparation for examinations.

Athletic Performance – In sports, Adderall has been used as a performance enhancer. Individuals using the drug have observed improvements in:

  • Muscle strength
  • Acceleration
  • Muscle endurance
  • Reaction time

Using Adderall causes an increase in the body’s power output. This is achieved through the increment of the body’s core temperature limit. As a result, an individual using Adderall can access their body’s reserve capacity. This capability can then be incorporated into the body’s working mainframe, resulting in actions such as jumping higher and throwing farther.

As seen above, Adderall has quite a variety of uses. However, the long-term benefits of some of these uses are questionable. All in all, the drug has been tested successfully for use in these scientific fields and, additionally, for recreational use.

Adderall’s recreational uses

Tablets of this drug have been abused and have a high abuse potential. Using Adderall creates a false sense of well-being. Additionally, the drug increases dopamine levels within the body. As such, the body becomes increasingly dependent on the drug. An individual addicted to Adderall will consequently need higher doses of the drug to achieve the same state of euphoria over time.

Does Adderall Have Side Effects?

Yes, the drug has various side effects which range from mild to fatal.

These effects are primarily determined by the quantity of Adderall dosage an individual consumes. Since recreational uses of Adderall involve higher doses, recreational users are more susceptible to severe side effects than persons who use the drug for therapeutic purposes.

Physical side effects consist of the following:

  • Hypertension or hypertension.
  • Sexual side effects in males may include erectile dysfunction, frequent or prolonged erections.
  • Abdominally, side effects could include nausea, weight loss, abdominal pain and a loss of appetite.
  • Nosebleeds
  • Dry mouth
  • Blurred vision
  • Excessive grinding of teeth
  • Drug-induced nasal congestion
  • Reduced seizure threshold
  • A movement disorder called tics could also occur.

Other physical effects of Adderall use are:

  1. a) Contraction of the urinary bladder sphincter. This results in a difficulty in urinating.
  2. b) Deeper faster breaths
  3. c) Adderall could also have pain-relieving effects and could affect the gastrointestinal tract in unexpected ways. This would either result in the slowed movement of content in the digestive system or increased motility if the smooth muscles of the tract are relaxed.

The drug could also affect users psychologically. These effects could include:

  • Apprehension
  • Mood swings
  • Insomnia.
  • Anxiety
  • Irritability
  • Restlessness
  • Sudden changes in libido.

Individuals using Adderall could have their personalities as well as mental states altered when under the influence drug. In such cases, users’ mental states before Adderall use determine the kind of psychological effects these individuals undergo afterward.

Delusions and paranoia have also been observed in heavy users. Psychosis can also occur as a result of Adderall’s use for the long-term. As such, therapeutic users of this drug are usually at the risk of reduced mental capabilities in the future despite such cases being a rarity.

Another psychological effect of this drug is conditioned placed preference. This effect has primarily been observed in therapeutic users. These individuals like spending time in places they had previously used Adderall.

Overdosing and Adderall: Have there been Cases?

Currently, there have been many recorded cases of death due to Adderall’s overuse. This is particularly true in individuals who use the drug for recreational purposes. Apart from its fatal effects, Adderall can also cause a broad range of adverse effects from an excessive dosage. These would include:

  • Cardiogenic shock
  • Cerebral hemorrhage
  • Circulatory system collapse
  • Acute amphetamine psychosis
  • Serotonin syndrome
  • Excessive adrenergic nerve activity.

All of the above effects of Adderall’s overuse could result in death. Further, significant overdoses could cause rapid muscle breakdown. This would prove to be counter-intuitive Adderall’s effect of increasing muscle strength in healthy doses.

Very high doses of Adderall could also cause fluid accumulation in the lungs, pulmonary hypertension and reduced levels of Carbon (IV) oxide in the blood.

In the urinary system, failure to produce urine and kidney failure have been recorded to occur in cases of Adderall overdose. Hyperpyrexia, a condition where one has an extremely elevated core body temperature, could also occur. This would be counter-intuitive to Adderall’s effects on an increased power output during muscle contraction.

What About Addiction?

Adderall is a Schedule II controlled drug, holding a much higher potential for abuse. This is because the major part of its composition is amphetamine salt which significantly stimulates the Central Nervous System. Amphetamines cause psychological dependency and habit forming in individuals, thereby causing addiction. The John Hopkins Medical school has well documented severe withdrawals symptoms caused directly from Adderall. This is due to its increased dopamine levels that cause a false sense of well-being.

You may be worried about the effects that come along with Adderall usage. Also, the fact that an overdose could cause death may be unnerving to you. Steps to take this medication could as well lead to addiction, which would not only cost you excessive money but could also cause you mental and physical instability through withdrawal symptoms.

Another Option

In the wake of these effects, it is of your best benefit to know what your other options for use are. One of these options is Provigil, a drug similar in some aspects to Adderall. However, this medication’s uses are more varied, and its benefits outweigh those of Adderall’s. What’s more, Provigil has lesser adverse effects to your body. Below is what you need to know about this drug.

Brief History

Provigil is a brand name of the drug modafinil, which was originally developed in France from its predecessor adrafinil.  Adrafinil has been in the market for a longer time. However, Provigil is more widely used than its parent drug. The drug was first used in 1994 in France under the name Modiodal.

Uses and Applications

Provigil’s label uses include the treatment of:

  • Narcolepsy
  • Shift work sleep disorder
  • Excessive daytime sleepiness associated with obstructive apnea.

Off the label, one of Provigil’s uses to treat multiple sclerosis patients. These patients have consistently reported decreased neurological fatigue with the drug’s use.

In a clinical test done by Cephalon, producers of Provigil, 72 people diagnosed with various degrees of multiple sclerosis took Provigil doses over a period of nine weeks. The participants then self-reported their fatigue levels every day. The results of the trial showed that Sclerosis patients who were taking small doses of Provigil during the clinical study reported feelings of less fatigue. Further, there was a significant statistical difference in the fatigue scores for those who were taking the actual Provigil dose versus participants taking the placebo. Higher Provigil doses did not have significantly increased effects on the users during the study.

Additionally, Provigil’s use has included treating after-effects of sedation. Provigil has also proved useful in the treatment of:

  • Depression
  • Fibromyalgia
  • Chronic fatigue syndrome
  • Myotonic dystrophy
  • Opioid-induced sleepiness
  • Spastic cerebral palsy
  • Parkinson’s disease.

Patients suffering from primary biliary cirrhosis have also been treated with Provigil. This has resulted in improvements in the body’s reactions to fatigue and daytime somnolence.

Applications for Provigil include:

The Armed Forces – Modafinil has been used in combat situations. During war, members of the army have used Provigil to prevent sleepiness. This is because the troops require high degrees of mental alertness. In lengthy missions, getting enough sleep is both highly improbable and risky. As such, the French government has endorsed Provigil use in its flanks. In relation to the government’s move, the Foreign Legion used the drug during covert operations. Further, The Indian Air Force confirmed that Provigil’s use is part of their contingency plans.

In the United States, the US military approved Provigil’s use for some Air Force missions. Modafinil was the only drug approved by the United States Airforce as a “go pill” to reduce fatigue during various operations.

Space Travel and Exploration – Provigil has continually been used by astronauts on long-term missions situated at the International Space Station. In The Canadian Medical Association Journal, Provigil’s use is elaborated as enabling the crew to perform at their optimum levels even when they are fatigued. The drug has also been shown to improve the quality of sleep astronauts get. The drug also helps improve circadian rhythms.

Side Effects

Provigil

Provigil use has very few side effects. In a report by Teva Pharmaceuticals, one-third of participants in clinical trials reported experiencing headaches. An additional 11 percent of the participants reported nausea and less than 10 percent of participants reporting other harmful side effects. These effects included nervousness, diarrhea, insomnia, anxiety and dizziness to gastrointestinal problems.

In cases of rarity that are however more severe, Provigil’s use has been related to severe skin rashes and other allergy-related side effects. In line with the rarity of these effects, only six cases of severe reactions from Provigil have been reported since the beginning of its marketing in the United States up to 2007.

Even in more recent years, severe cases have also been at a minimum. The long-term safety and effectiveness of Provigil have not yet been quantified, although experts across the board and patients alike claim the drug has very minimal side effects.

Cases of Overdose

Records dating back to 2004 from the FDA show that the agency is not aware of any fatal cases involving an overdose in Provigil alone. Clinical trials have for Provigil’s overuse included taking up to 1200mg per day for 21 days one-time 4500mg doses as well. However, the tests showed Provigil did not appear to cause life-threatening effects. Results of these clinical trials only resulted in adverse effects. These included palpitations, insomnia, anxiety, irritability, confusion, nervousness, and nausea.

Addiction Levels

Provigil is a Schedule IV controlled drug. As such, it has a low potential for abuse. This is because it produces low dopaminergic effects. Low physical euphoria levels cause Provigil to be a weak reinforcement if used for abuse.

Summary

Despite the similarities between Adderall and Provigil, it is clear that Provigil is a better option for drug use. The following table highlights just why Provigil is better than Adderall.

 

Area of Difference Provigil Adderall
Range of Application Provigil has a wider range of application which includes governmental agencies and individuals as potential users Adderall is mainly therapeutic. Further, its uses tend to be more recreational in society, which has negative side effects
Abuse Potential Provigil has a low abuse potential. This drug does not have a high dependency rate and is not prone to addiction This drug has a high abuse potential with individual’s experiencing more dependency. There are higher risks of addiction with this drug
Legal classification Schedule IV, showing less stringency due to low possibility of addiction Schedule II, showing a higher level of stringency due to its proven high levels of possible addiction
Side Effects Minimal side effects Side effects are numerous and varied. They have also been seen to be very severe in numerous cases
Withdrawal Withdrawal symptoms are shown to be very few or non-existent. The symptoms end in a period of one month. Excessive withdrawal symptoms leading to both psychological and physical tribulations on discontinuing the drug
Cases of overdose No documented case of a fatal overdose due to purely Provigil’s overuse A number of documented deaths due to the overuse of Adderall. Overdose of Adderall could also lead to excessive complications that would lead to it as an indirect cause of death

 

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How to Sleep Less?

You may want to avoid sleep or stay awake for any number of reasons. People such as students, truck drivers, and other individuals may want to reduce their sleepiness because of their work shifts or since they want to finish up on projects or stay up doing research. Additionally, you could have a major exam coming up, and you would want to complete it in time. There are many ways to reduce your sleepiness and thereby stay awake for a longer time. One of these ways is by the use of medication. Drugs such as caffeine pills, Provigil and Ritalin help people stay awake. Below, we discuss each of these types of medication and show you which one is best suited towards your needs. As a responsible user of these kinds of drugs, you should be concerned about the drug’s terms of use. How many times you would have to use each drug, its efficacy, as well as the risks of addiction, should also be put into consideration. No one likes side effects either, so adverse effects the medication has should be explored. Knowledge is power. As such, we shall discuss in the timeline below the various drugs that can be used to stay awake. These drugs include:

  • Provigil
  • Ritalin
  • Caffeine
  • Adderall

 

Background Information on these drugs

  • Provigil, also commonly sold as Modalert, Modavigil or Alertec is a drug made from a chemical compound called Modafinil. Modafinil was developed in France in the 1990s. The drug was manufactured from adrafinil, which preceded it in use. However, recent times have had Modafinil as the more popular option amongst people everywhere. In 1998, Modafinil was granted FDA approval to treat narcolepsy. The drug also offers treatment for work shift sleep disorder and excessive daytime sleepiness. Modafinil is also used to improve cognitive function. That means it not only helps you stay awake but also ensures your brain is more proactive through the extended period past your usual sleep time. The drug also sprouts increases your focus and as such your overall mental alertness.
  • Ritalin is the brand name for a chemical substance called methylphenidate. The drug was licensed in 1955. However, its use by the general public began as from 1960. Ritalin has been shown to have an effect on working memory, episodic memory, and inhibitory control. It increases overall mental alertness. However, results are not as intense or compelling as those of other drugs. This means you might still find yourself suffering from mild sleepiness even after taking this medication. Also, its slight improvements mean you could get frustrated from spending your money on a product whose efficacy is not very high. Methylphenidate is sold under other brand names including Concerta, Aptensio, Biphentin, Daytrana, Equasym, Medikinet, Metadate, Methylin, QuilliChew, and Quillivant.
  • Caffeine is a methylxanthine stimulant for the Central Nervous System (CNS). It is the world’s most used psychoactive drug and is legal and unregulated throughout nearly the whole world. Its most common source is coffee beans and other drinks containing caffeine are coffee, tea, and cola. Caffeine, apart from being found in your usual cup of coffee, is also found in a variety of other sources. One of these sources is in its pure state in the form of pills or caffeine-rich supplements.
  • Adderall is a drug that is essentially used by mixing it with amphetamines. In this way, the user can experience the psychostimulant effects of the drug. Adderall was approved in 1996 to treat Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). However, it has also been associated with increased wakefulness which means it could help you stay up for long amounts of time. Additionally, the use of this drug ensures you can have better focus and motivation for tasks. Its generic version was first sold in the markets in 2002. From then, it has been marketed as either Adderall or Adderall XR.

 


How Do These Drugs work to reduce sleepiness?

Provigil

This drug acts as a selectively weak dopamine reuptake inhibitor. This means that modafinil blocks the action of the dopamine transporter known as DAT. As a result, extracellular dopamine is not absorbed into the postsynaptic neuron. This causes an increase in the concentration of extracellular level. As such, more dopaminergic transmission can be achieved. Dopamine causes your body to become more proactive. As a result, you can stay awake for longer and have better overall mental capabilities while doing this. However, it has been noted that several other mechanisms are involved in the action of this drug in the body.

Caffeine

Caffeine travels to your brain and blocks the action of adenosine on its receptor. The blockage prevents adenosine from inducing drowsiness in an individual. As such, you can be more mentally alert in your activities. The stimulation thus results in increased wakefulness. Additionally, it causes better focus and an increase in body coordination. However, these results disappear as soon as the amount of caffeine in your system reduces. The bad news is that caffeine levels could lower quite quickly.

Ritalin

This drug blocks the dopamine transporter and norepinephrine transporter. As a result, there are increased concentrations of dopamine and norepinephrine within the synaptic cleft. This effect, in turn, leads to increased neurotransmission of dopamine and norepinephrine, which increases mental alertness and helps you stay awake.

Adderall

Adderall increases the activity of the neurotransmitters in the brain. These include norepinephrine and dopamine. The desired effect stems from which results from their interactions with trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1) and vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) in neurons. Dextroamphetamine stimulates the Central Nervous System, which leads to increased wakefulness in individuals. As such, you feel more active, and your sleepiness is reduced.

Who Have Used These Drugs for Their Effects Before?

Provigil. As the name suggests, this drug increases vigilance. The drug has been utilized by the following people for its sleep-reducing effects as well as to increase overall mental activity.

a) In the Military – Modafinil has been used during times of war or in various missions. Troops have used Provigil to prevent sleepiness since, during war, the soldiers require to have high degrees of mental alertness. Further, the drug has been employed in lengthy missions where getting enough sleep could lead to the danger of being tracked down or ambushed. In France, the government endorsed Provigil’s use in its flanks. From this policy, the Foreign Legion used the drug during covert operations. Members of the Indian Air Force have also confirmed that Provigil’s use is part of their contingency plans.

The United States military approved Provigil’s use for some Air Force missions. Further, modafinil was the only drug to get approval from the United States Airforce as a “go pill.” Its uses ranged from reducing fatigue during various operations as well as to increase mental alertness.

b) Astronauts – At the International Space Station, members of space exploration teams are sent to outer space for various missions. The missions could be very taxing and as such cause fatigue. Due to the limited time space crews have to conduct their exploits, they use modafinil to stay awake for longer so as to perform more efficient missions. According to the Canadian Medical Association, astronauts who take Modafinil have their sleepiness reduced, and their mental capabilities heightened. Additionally, using this drug ensures that the quality of sleep the space crew experience is better.

Caffeine’s stimulating effect is widely used in the world today. Most members of the working class in the United States have coffee in the morning for its stimulation. However, the effects are not as intense as those of modafinil. Additionally, none of the government’s agencies depend exclusively on caffeine to reduce sleepiness.

Adderall and Ritalin have no official authorities that endorse their use in promoting wakefulness. In as much as the effect is present and the drugs are FDA approved, these drugs have a wider market for other purposes such as ADHD treatment and are not specifically attributed to staying awake.

Side Effects of These Drugs

Provigil

Very few side effects have been recorded from the use of this drug. The long-term effects of Modafinil have not been precisely measured. However, medical practitioners and patients across the board have spoken positively on modafinil use, citing little to no side effects.

In clinical trials by Teva Pharmaceuticals, one-third of participants reported experiencing headaches. 11 percent of the participants reported nausea and less than 10 percent of participants reporting other harmful side effects. The results ranged from nervousness, diarrhea, insomnia, anxiety and dizziness to gastrointestinal problems. In more severe cases, Provigil’s use was related to severe skin rashes and other allergy-related side effects. It should be noted that only six cases of severe reactions from Provigil have been reported since the beginning of its marketing in the United States up to 2007.

Recently, severe cases have been at the minimum.

Caffeine

The consumption of caffeine has led to the following adverse effects on individuals:

  • High blood pressure, vasoconstriction, and arterial stiffness. Further, caffeine can interfere with movements of food within the digestive system and affect the production of gastric juice. This could lead to indigestion. The use of caffeine has also been associated with the acceleration of bone loss. In asthmatics, the use of caffeine can cause weak bronchodilation for up to four hours. This drug also increases urinary output which could lead to dehydration.
  • Psychologically, the drug has induced jitteriness, anxiety, insomnia and a slight reduction in co-ordination. At high doses, this drug can both cause and worsen anxiety.

 

Ritalin

Methylphenidate has been known to cause the following adverse effects:

  • Appetite loss, dry mouth, anxiety, nausea, abdominal pain, weight loss, blurred vision, chest pain and hyperhidrosis. Ritalin can also cause palpitations and changes in blood pressure. Hypersensitivity has also been recorded as a side effect of both Ritalin and Concerta.
  • Psychologically, Ritalin has been known to cause emotional instability, confusion, and depression.

Adderall

This drug has some of the most varied side effects. They include:

Physical Effects

  • Hypertension or hypertension.
  • Sexual side effects in males may include erectile dysfunction, frequent or prolonged erections.
  • Abdominally, side effects could include nausea, weight loss, abdominal pain and a loss of appetite.
  • Nosebleeds
  • Dry mouth
  • Blurred vision
  • Excessive grinding of teeth
  • Drug-induced nasal congestion
  • Reduced seizure threshold
  • A movement disorder called tics could also occur.

Psychologically, Adderall has been known to cause the following:

  • Apprehension
  • Mood swings
  • Insomnia.
  • Anxiety
  • Irritability
  • Restlessness
  • Sudden changes in libido.

Additionally, Adderall’s use could cause changes in mental state, personality changes, delusions, and paranoia. In heavier users, conditioned placed preference has been observed. This effect has primarily been seen in individuals who use Adderall therapeutically. These people like spending time in places they had previously taken Adderall doses.

Cases of Overdose

Provigil

The FDA is not informed of any deaths from the exclusive overuse of modafinil. To confirm this information, clinical trials have been conducted that had increased doses of modafinil given to participants. During the tests, participants took modafinil doses of up to 1200mg per day for 21 days. The known occurrences of one-time 4500mg did not appear to cause life-threatening effects. However, adverse effects were observed. These included palpitations, insomnia, anxiety, irritability, confusion, nervousness, and nausea.

Caffeine has had recorded overdose cases. These led to the deaths of individuals through convulsions.

Adderall’s overdose has caused the death of many people. Additionally, individuals who have not died from Adderall’s overdose have experienced the following side effects:

  • Cardiogenic shock
  • Cerebral hemorrhage
  • Circulatory system collapse
  • Acute amphetamine psychosis
  • Serotonin syndrome
  • Excessive adrenergic nerve activity.

An overdose from the use of Ritalin could lead to any of the following effects:

  • Hyperthermia, sweating, flushing, headache, tachycardia, heart palpitations, cardiac arrhythmias, and hypertension. Additionally, individuals could suffer from vomiting, agitation, tremors, hyperreflexia, muscle twitching, euphoria, confusion, and hallucinations. An overdose of Ritalin can also lead to circulatory collapse which would consequently cause death.

Addiction Potential of these Drugs

Provigil has been classified by the FDA as a Schedule IV controlled drug. This is because modafinil has very low levels of euphoria stemming from its use, which means getting addicted to using this drug is significantly difficult. Also, it gives weak reinforcement when used over time.

Caffeine, Adderall, and Ritalin are all known addictive substances. They reinforce the use of these substances on the body and have a broad range of withdrawal symptoms in case one stops using them. Adderall, specifically, is a schedule II controlled drug. This means Adderall has a very high potential for abuse and as such, is easily addictive.

Summary and Conclusion

Looking at the table below clearly outlines the differences between these drugs used to reduce sleepiness.

 

Area of Difference Provigil Other Drugs that Reduce Sleepiness
Efficacy Modafinil’s mechanism of action is very efficient. Additionally, one stays awake for longer hours using this drug. These drugs have short-lived spouts of wakefulness.

The degree of wakefulness experienced using these drugs is also significantly lower

Addiction This drug is not likely to be abused. It has very low dependency and addictive levels. These drugs are likely to be abused with time. Risks are high stemming from strong reinforcement.
Side Effects Modafinil has been shown to have very few side effects These drugs have varied adverse effects which could lead other diseases in the future
Withdrawal Withdrawal symptoms are at a minimum. Further, any withdrawal symptoms experienced would end in one month. Excessive withdrawal symptoms which could limit the user for weeks to months after ceasing these drugs’use
Cases of overdose No documented case of a fatal overdose due to purely modafinil’s overuse Fatal incidents from the overdose of other study drugs have been recorded.

 

From this table, it is very clear that modafinil is the superior drug to use so as to reduce your sleepiness. You will stay awake for longer and perform even better in your tasks.

Sources:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3480574

http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2015/020717s037s038lbl.pdf

https://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2013/may/03/brain-enhancing-drugs-mj-hyland

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1737733

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3221356

http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk_politics/6083840.stm

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https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2691437

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https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4319252

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http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2015/011522s042lbl.pdf

https://web.archive.org/web/20131103155156/http://www.acha.org/prof_dev/ADHD_docs/ADHD_PDprogram_Article2.pdf

https://dx.doi.org/10.1177%2F108705470000300403

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2769923

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4340791

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3353150

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3785407

https://jissn.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1550-2783-7-5

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0059561

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https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3000907/

Provigil vs. Adderall

Provigil is a drug sold across the United States and can be bought online and thus delivered almost anywhere in the world. In 1998, the drug was granted FDA Approval to treat narcolepsy. From then, it has broadened its treatment base also to treat work shift sleep disorder and excessive daytime sleepiness which is associated with obstructive sleep apnea. Further down the line, the drug has also been used to treat Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Also, using Provigil also results in cognitive enhancement, and as such the drug has been used to for better mental productivity and focus.

What about Adderall? Mixing Adderall with amphetamine salts produces a psychostimulant drug. Initially, Adderall was approved in 1996 to treat Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). However, it has also been associated with increasing both cognitive and physical abilities by society.

These drugs are quite similar in some of their treatment areas, such as ADHD. However, don’t let that cause you to think these drugs are the same. Provigil packs significantly greater effects on mental alertness and overall cognitive enhancement.

Brief History of Both Drugs

Provigil is a brand name of the drug modafinil, which was originally developed in France from its predecessor adrafinil.  Despite adrafinil being in the market for a longer time, Provigil is more widely used than its parent drug. Provigil was first used in 1994 in France under the name ModiodaL. Adderall was introduced to the pharmaceutical market in 1996 as an instant-release drug. This medication’s generic version was first sold in drug markets in 2002.

Uses and Various Applications

Provigil’s label uses include the treatment of:

  • Narcolepsy
  • Shift work sleep disorder
  • Excessive daytime sleepiness associated with obstructive apnea.

One of Provigil’s uses off the label is in multiple sclerosis patients. These patients have consistently reported decreased neurological fatigue with the drug’s use.

In a clinical test done by Cephalon, producers of Provigil, 72 people diagnosed with various degrees of multiple sclerosis took Provigil doses over a period of nine weeks. The patients self-reported their fatigue levels every day on standardized scales. Sclerosis patients who were taking small doses of Provigil during the clinical study reported feelings of less fatigue. Further, there was a significant statistical difference in the fatigue scores for those who were taking the actual Provigil dose versus participants taking the placebo. Higher Provigil doses did not have significant increased effects on the users during the study.

Provigil has also been used to treat after-effects of sedation. Other health issues where Provigil’s use has caused significant improvement include:

  • Depression
  • Fibromyalgia
  • Chronic fatigue syndrome
  • Myotonic dystrophy
  • Opioid-induced sleepiness
  • Spastic cerebral palsy
  • Parkinson’s disease.

Provigil’s use in patients suffering from primary biliary cirrhosis has improved the body’s reactions to fatigue and daytime somnolence.

Applications for Provigil include:

  • The Military – The drug has been used during combat situations. During war, members of the army have used Provigil to prevent sleepiness as they require high degrees of high mental alertness. The drug has also been employed in lengthy missions where getting enough sleep is both highly improbable and dangerous. The French government has endorsed Provigil use in its flanks. As such, the Foreign Legion used the drug during covert operations. The Indian Air Force also confirmed that Provigil’s use is part of their contingency plans.

In the United States, the US military approved Provigil’s use for some Air Force missions. Provigil, under its drug name modafinil, was the only drug approved by the United States Airforce as a “go pill” to reduce fatigue during various operations.

  • Space Travel – Provigil has been and continues to be used by astronauts on long-term missions situated at the International Space Station. The Canadian Medical Association Journal explains that Provigil’s use enables the crew to perform at their optimum levels even when they are fatigued. Provigil’s use also improves the quality of sleep astronauts get. Additionally, the drug helps improve circadian rhythms.

Adderall’s applications include:

Treatment of ADHD – With its long-term use, Adderall reduces the core symptoms of ADHD including hyperactivity, inattention, and impulsivity. Adderall use also improves brain development and nerve growth. MRI scan results have shown that long-term treatment using Adderall leads to decreased abnormal brain structure and function in people who have ADHD. Scans show improvements of the right caudate nucleus of the basal ganglia in patients who have ADHD and are using the drug.

Brain Development – A 2015 review found the use of low Adderall dosages produced slight yet unambiguous improvements in the cognition, working memory, long-term episodic memory as well as some aspects of attention. The clinical trials done for this review were on normal and healthy adults. Adderall’s use has also improved memory consolidation. As such, individuals who use this drug can recall information better.

Motivation – Adderall use has been linked to improvements in the individual motivation to perform certain tasks. The drug also causes increased wakefulness. As a result, people using Adderall have more goal-oriented behavior. These effects of Adderall cause the drug to be used in preparation for examinations. Five to thirty-five percent of college students use these two drugs for performance enhancement.

Athletic Performance – In sports, Adderall has been used for performance improvements. These include improvements in:

o    Muscle strength

o     Acceleration

o    Muscle endurance

o    Reaction time

The body’s power output is also increased by increasing the body’s core temperature limit. This accesses the body’s reserve capacity and incorporates it into the body’s working mainframe, resulting in actions such as jumping higher and throwing farther.

Recreational Uses – Adderall tablets have been abused and have a high abuse potential. Using Adderall creates a false sense of well-being. Additionally, the drug increases dopamine levels within the body. As such, the body becomes increasingly dependent on the drug, requiring higher doses to achieve the same state of euphoria over time.

Side Effects

Provigil

Provigil use has very few side effects overall. Teva Pharmaceuticals reported one-third of participants in clinical trials experiencing headaches. 11 percent of the participants reported nausea and less than 10 percent of participants reporting other harmful side effects. The results ranged from nervousness, diarrhea, insomnia, anxiety and dizziness to gastrointestinal problems.

In more serious cases, Provigil’s use was related to severe skin rashes and other allergy-related side effects. It should be noted that only six cases of severe reactions from Provigil have been reported since the beginning of its marketing in the United States up to 2007.

Recently, severe cases have also been quite minimal. The long-term safety and effectiveness of Provigil have not yet been quantified, although experts across the board and patients alike claim the drug has very minimal side effects.

Adderall

This drug’s use has very many varied side effects. The side effects are mainly determined by the quantity of Adderall dosage beforehand. Since recreational uses of Adderall involve higher doses, recreational users are more susceptible to severe side effects than individuals who use the drug for therapeutic purposes.

Physical side effects of Adderall include:

  • Hypertension or hypertension.
  • Sexual side effects in males may include erectile dysfunction, frequent or prolonged erections.
  • Abdominally, side effects could include nausea, weight loss, abdominal pain and a loss of appetite.
  • Nosebleeds
  • Dry mouth
  • Blurred vision
  • Excessive grinding of teeth
  • Drug-induced nasal congestion
  • Reduced seizure threshold
  • A movement disorder called tics could also occur.

Other physical effects of the use of Adderall consist of the contraction of the urinary bladder sphincter. This results in a difficulty in urinating. Deeper faster breaths have also been observed when Adderall is used in larger doses. Adderall could also have pain-relieving effects and could affect the gastrointestinal tract in unexpected ways. This would either result in the slowed movement of content in the digestive system or increased motility if the smooth muscles of the tract are relaxed.

Psychological side effects of Adderall include:

  • Apprehension
  • Mood swings
  • Insomnia.
  • Anxiety
  • Irritability
  • Restlessness
  • Sudden changes in libido.

 

An individual using Adderall could have his or her personality and mental state altered when taking the drug. As such, the user’s mental state before using the drug would determine the kind of psychological effects one would undergo.

In some cases, delusions and paranoia have been observed in heavy users. Psychosis can also occur as a result of Adderall’s use for the long-term. As such, therapeutic users of this drug are usually at the risk of reduced mental capabilities in the future despite such cases being a rarity.

Another psychological effect of this drug is conditioned placed preference. This effect has primarily been observed in therapeutic users. These individuals like spending time in places they had previously used Adderall.

Cases of Overdose

Provigil

From its records dating back to 2004, the FDA is not aware of any fatal overdoses involving an overdose in Provigil alone. Additionally, clinical trials have involved taking up to 1200mg per day for 21 days, and known occurrences of one-time 4500mg did not appear to cause life-threatening effects. Results of these clinical trials only resulted in adverse effects. These included palpitations, insomnia, anxiety, irritability, confusion, nervousness, and nausea.

Adderall

High doses of this drug have caused cases of overdoses. These have led to the death of patients. Despite the severity of effects of overdoses in humans depending mainly on the degree of overdose as well as the individual’s drug tolerance, Adderall overdoses result in other severe effects apart from death. Such effects consist of

  • Cardiogenic shock
  • Cerebral hemorrhage
  • Circulatory system collapse
  • Acute amphetamine psychosis
  • Serotonin syndrome
  • Excessive adrenergic nerve activity.

All these effects of an overdose from Adderall could result in the death of the user. Also, significant overdoses could cause rapid muscle breakdown as opposed to increased muscle strength in healthy doses.

Very high doses of Adderall could also cause fluid accumulation in the lungs, pulmonary hypertension and reduced levels of Carbon (IV) oxide in the blood.

In the urinary system, failure to produce urine and kidney failure have been recorded to occur in cases of Adderall overdose. Hyperpyrexia, a condition where one has an extremely elevated core body temperature, could also occur. This would be counter-intuitive to Adderall’s effects on an increased power output during muscle contraction.

Addiction

Provigil is a Schedule IV controlled drug. As such, it has a low potential for abuse. This is because it produces low dopaminergic effects. Low physical euphoria levels cause Provigil to be a weak reinforcement if used for abuse.

Adderall is a Schedule II controlled drug, holding a much higher potential for abuse. This is because the major part of its composition is amphetamine salt which significantly stimulates the Central Nervous System. Amphetamines cause psychological dependency and habit forming in individuals, thereby causing addiction. The John Hopkins Medical school has well documented severe withdrawals symptoms caused directly from Adderall. This is due to its increased dopamine levels that cause a false sense of well-being.

Summary and Recap of Information

Similarities between Provigil and Adderall include:

  • Treatment of ADHD: Both these medicines are capable of treating ADHD, with Adderall being the clinically approved option. However, Provigil is also prescribed to treat ADHD and has a lot of evidence backing it as a viable option.
  • Efficacy: Both Provigil and Adderall are considered active adjuncts, possibly able to be used with an antidepressant
  • Generic Availability: Both substances have their generic versions available for sale
  • Half Life: The similarity of their half-lives is high. With Provigil having a 12-hour half-life and Adderall having an 11-13 hour half life
  • Treatment of Narcolepsy: Both these substances are FDA-approved to treat narcolepsy
  • Use with antidepressants: Both substances are considered effective depression adjuncts among individuals suffering from refractory depression

Differences between both drugs include:

Area of Difference Provigil Adderall
Range of Application Provigil has a wider range of application which includes governmental agencies and individuals as potential users Adderall is mainly therapeutic. Further, its uses tend to be more recreational in society, which has negative side effects
Abuse Potential Provigil has a low abuse potential. This drug does not have a high dependency rate and is not prone to addiction This drug has a high abuse potential with individual’s experiencing more dependency. There are higher risks of addiction with this drug
Legal classification Schedule IV, showing less stringency due to low possibility of addiction Schedule II, showing a higher level of stringency due to its proven high levels of possible addiction
Side Effects Minimal side effects Side effects are numerous and varied. They have also been seen to be very severe in numerous cases
Withdrawal Withdrawal symptoms are shown to be very few or non-existent. The symptoms end in a period of one month. Excessive withdrawal symptoms leading to both psychological and physical tribulations on discontinuing the drug
Cases of overdose No documented case of a fatal overdose due to purely Provigil’s overuse A number of documented deaths due to the overuse of Adderall. Overdose of Adderall could also lead to excessive complications that would lead to it as an indirect cause of death

 

Comparing both these drugs shows that Provigil is superior in terms of its usage. Its varied benefits, low addiction levels and minimal withdrawal symptoms means individuals live a completely normal life after they use the drug, with numerous benefits to all their bodies both physically and mentally.

https://duckdose.org/why-you-should-switch-from-Adderall-to-Provigil/
http://mentalhealthdaily.com/2015/06/04/provigil-Provigil-vs-Adderall-comparison/
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https://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2013/may/03/brain-enhancing-drugs-mj-hyland
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1737733
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3221356
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk_politics/6083840.stm
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https://web.archive.org/web/20131103155156/http://www.acha.org/prof_dev/ADHD_docs/ADHD_PDprogram_Article2.pdf
https://dx.doi.org/10.1177%2F108705470000300403
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2769923
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https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3785407

Top 5 Best Study Drugs

 

 

Over time, students and scientists alike have discovered that some drugs stimulate the brain in ways that improve its efficiency at certain tasks. This could be, for example, in increasing alertness, making better decisions, longer concentration spans and consequently, better results at school. As a result, some students have begun taking drugs associated with these improvements in brain activity and have, therefore, gone on to get ahead of their classmates and get fantastic grades! However, your search for the best study drugs in the market could prove daunting, Dangers of unknown or unmentioned side effects, overdose, and other health risks should be a matter of concern to you. Further, the frequency and terms of using these drugs should also be a matter of concern to any student who wants to achieve better grades and also put in more work. The work could be in a project you are working on over the long term or even on a test required the next day. These drugs, if correctly used, are sure to result in a better grade for you. But how do these drugs stack against each other and which ones are best for you? Let’s find out below.

Commonly used study drugs include:

  • Modalert
  • Caffeine
  • Concerta
  • Focalin
  • Ritalin
  • Adrafinil
  • Vyvanse
  • Phenylpiracetam

History and Brief Description of these drugs

  • Modalert is made from the compound modafinil. Modafinil is a drug that goes by the brand name Provigil in the United States. It was first developed in France from its predecessor adrafinil. Consequently, it has become more popular than adrafinil. The drug was granted FDA Approval in 1998 to treat narcolepsy. It treats work shift sleep disorder as well as excessive daytime sleepiness associated with obstructive sleep apnea. Modafinil also enhances cognitive functions, and it is for this reason that it is used to increase overall mental productivity and focus. Additionally, the drug also treats Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.
  • Caffeine has been used for a long time as a stimulant. It can be found in beverages such as tea, coffee or cola. However, larger and purer amounts can be found in caffeine pills that are sold in pharmacies. The drug is the world’s most actively used psychoactive drug. However, its effects on studying are not as phenomenal as other drugs on this list. In other words, it doesn’t pack that much of a punch.
  • Ritalin and Concerta are different brand names of the drug methylphenidate. This medication has also been used to treat ADHD and narcolepsy. It was first licensed in 1955 and has been utilized by the population since 1960. The drug has been shown to have an effect on working memory, episodic memory, and inhibitory control. Results for this drug, however, are somewhat modest. This means it is only likely to incur slight improvements in cases where studying in class is involved.
  • Focalin is a brand name for the drug dexmethylphenidate which is used to stimulate the Central Nervous System. The drug is used in the treatment of ADHD and narcolepsy. Further, it has been shown to increase concentration, avoid distractions and in the control of overall behavior. This results to longer working periods and fewer distractions, thereby enhancing your study experience.
  • Vyvanse, also sold as Tyvense, Elvanse or Vanvanse is scientifically called Lisdexamfetamine. The drug is a member of the amphetamine class and is used to treat Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Furthermore, it has been used to treat binge eating disorder as well. Low, consistent doses of Vyvanse have resulted in improvements in the working memory, long-term episodic memory and inhibitory control of healthy adults. Additionally, the drug has led to increased attention. This means that the drug gives you better results by helping you recall larger amounts of information as well as concentrate better in class. However, results for clinical trials found only modest effects to this extent which means the drug causes only a slight change in these aspects.

 

Uses and Various Applications

Modafinil conventionally treats narcolepsy, shift work sleep disorder and excessive daytime sleepiness associated with obstructive apnea. Additionally, multiple sclerosis patients have reported decreased neurological fatigue from the use of this drug.

Cephalon, producers of modafinil which is used to produce Modalert, performed a test on 72 people who had various degrees of multiple sclerosis. The patients took the drug for nine weeks and self-reported fatigue levels over that period on standardized scales. The patients described significantly lower fatigue levels as compared to those taking the placebo. This means that Modalert makes you feel less tired since it works to combat fatigue. The lesser tired you feel, the more you study, and as such the higher likely you are to perform better on tests.

Modafinil has also been used to treat depression, fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, myotonic dystrophy, opioid-induced sleepiness, spastic cerebral palsy and Parkinson’s disease. In primary biliary cirrhosis, modafinil has been able to improve the body’s reactions to fatigue and daytime somnolence symptoms.

Students are not the only ones using modafinil. The drug has been used in military circles as well. Since the drug prevents fatigue and improves concentration to an incredible extent, the military has applied it in combat situations where troops encounter sleep deprivation, in long missions, for example. These missions could take days to weeks of no sleep. And guess what? Modafinil has been able to play its part. Further, Modafinil has been used by the French government. The Foreign Legion used the drug for covert operations. In India, the Air Force has confirmed that modafinil is one of their contingencies. Modafinil use has also been approved by the United States military in some of its Air Force missions. The drug has also been used by astronauts on long-term missions at the International Space Station. Since astronauts experience poor quality of sleep, modafinil helps to improve sleep time as well as with circadian rhythms.

Focalin has only been used in the treatment of ADHD. As a result of its stimulating effects, individuals who have ADHD can concentrate easier, avoid distractions and have better results in controlling their behavior. These results can then be applied by students who want longer concentration time in class. The drug, however, has not been used as broadly as Modafinil.

Caffeine pills, when ingested, stimulate the Central Nervous System to reduce physical fatigue and prevent or reduce drowsiness. Caffeine significantly delays the onset of sleep while giving increased focus. The drug also causes a faster reaction time and has positive effects on learning and memory. However, the amount required to produce these effects varies from person to person. Further, some individuals show caffeine tolerance with time meaning it is not possible to achieve the same results one could with the same amount of caffeine over an extended period.

Phenylpiracetam is described as an overall stimulant. It reverses the depressant effects of the benzodiazepine diazepam. This means it reduces this chemical’s ability to induce sleep, thereby making you more active for longer periods of time. Further, the drug results in better learning capability through an increase in the operant behavior, a reward-based system of learning.

Ritalin and Concerta activate dopamine receptor D1 which results in various improvements in cognitive function. Further, the drug indirectly activates adrenoceptor α2. The combined effect of these activations is an increase in both working and episodic memory. It also increases stamina and endurance. Vyvanse, also an amphetamine like Ritalin and Concerta, is used in similar conditions to achieve similar results. However, large amounts of these drugs cause a decline in both athletic performance and cognitive functions. Additionally, the effects to the brain are not as vast, and thus performance gains are little.

 

Side Effects

i) Modafinil

Teva Pharmaceuticals released a report showing one-third of participants in clinical trials experienced headaches. 11 percent of these participants reported nausea and less than 10 percent of the participants reported other adverse side effects. The effects included nervousness, diarrhea, insomnia, anxiety, dizziness and gastrointestinal problems.

More serious effects have included severe skin rashes and other allergy-related side effects. Only six cases of severe reactions from modafinil have been reported since the beginning of its marketing in the United States up to 2007. Severe cases have been few and far in between. Despite the long-term safety of this drug remaining unquantified, experts across the board and patients alike claim the drug has very minimal side effects.

ii) Caffeine

Physical effects of caffeine have included high blood pressure, vasoconstriction, and arterial stiffness. Further, caffeine can interfere with movements of food within the digestive system and affect the production of gastric juice. This could lead to indigestion. The use of caffeine has also been associated with the acceleration of bone loss. In asthmatics, the use of caffeine can cause weak bronchodilation for up to four hours. This drug also increases urinary output which could lead to dehydration.

Psychologically, the drug has induced jitteriness, anxiety, insomnia and a slight reduction in co-ordination. At high doses, this drug can both cause and worsen anxiety.

iii) Vyvanse

This drug could cause both hypertension and hypotension, erectile dysfunction, abdominal pain, appetite loss, nausea, weight loss, blurred vision, excessive grinding of the teeth, nose bleeds, profuse sweating, tics and drug-induced nasal congestion.

Further Vyvanse could cause mood swings, insomnia, and self-confidence. Delusions and paranoia could occur in heavy users of this drug.

iv) Focalin

The use of Focalin causes a wide range of side effects. These include appetite loss, dry mouth, anxiety, nausea, nervousness, insomnia, abdominal pain and weight loss. Additionally, the drug could also cause irritability, dizziness, lethargy, tics, blurred vision, dry eyes and changes in blood pressure.

Adverse psychological side effects of this drug include depression, confusion, and bruxism. It can also worsen psychosis in psychotic patients and could adversely affect patients with bipolar disorder.

v) Ritalin and Concerta

These two drugs cause a loss of appetite, dry mouth, anxiety, nausea, abdominal pain, weight loss, blurred vision, chest pain and hyperhidrosis. The drugs can also cause palpitations and changes in blood pressure. Hypersensitivity has also been recorded as a side effect of both Ritalin and Concerta.

Psychological effects include emotional instability, confusion, and depression.

 

Cases of Overdose

The FDA is not informed of any deaths as a result of the overdose of modafinil exclusively. Additionally, clinical trials have been conducted. The tests included taking up to 1200mg per day for 21 days. The known occurrences of one-time 4500mg did not appear to cause life-threatening effects. Only adverse effects were observed inclusive of palpitations, insomnia, anxiety, irritability, confusion, nervousness and nausea.

An overdose of Focalin has been observed to have the following effects: confusion, hallucinations, delirium, hyperthermia, sweating, vomiting, agitation, tremors, hyperreflexia, muscle twitching, euphoria, flushing, headache, tachycardia, heart palpitations, cardiac arrhythmias, hypertension, mydriasis, and dryness of mucous membranes. Severe overdoses have even led to the circulatory system’s collapse.

Vyvanse has led to death as a result of severe overdoses. Further, the drug has caused kidney failure, circulatory collapse, cardiogenic shock, cerebral hemorrhage, rapid muscle breakdown, painful urination, tremors, inability to urinate, dilated pupils and the production of excessively acidic bodily fluids.

Concerta and Ritalin, when overdosed cause hyperthermia, sweating, flushing, headache, tachycardia, heart palpitations, cardiac arrhythmias, and hypertension. The drugs also cause vomiting, agitation, tremors, hyperreflexia, muscle twitching, euphoria, confusion, and hallucinations. They can also lead to circulatory collapse.

Addiction

Modafinil is a Schedule IV controlled drug. This means it has a low potential for abuse, as a result of its low dopaminergic effects. Since the drug has low levels of euphoria, it is not abused. The drug has very low addiction and dependence liabilities.

Concerta, Ritalin, Vyvanse and Focalin are all addictive study drugs. Caffeine has also been shown to have addictive tendencies, resulting in withdrawal symptoms such as headaches when not ingested.

Summary

The following table summarizes the analysis of the above study drugs.

Area of Difference Modalert Other Study Drugs
Mental Benefits Modalert provides significantly high increments in memory, cognitive functions and concentration. Most of these drugs produce generally low levels of performance increments. Only slight changes occur.
Addiction This drug is not likely to be abused. It has very low dependency and addictive levels. The risks for addiction are very high. Due to the high euphoria levels from these drugs, they are likely to be abused.
Side Effects Modalert has minimal side effects. The side effects for other study drugs are extreme. They can easily cause hospitalization.
Withdrawal Withdrawal symptoms are at a minimum. Also, any withdrawal symptoms experienced would end in one month. Withdrawal symptoms are excessive and lead to both physical and psychological effects that greatly limit an individual’s capability
Cases of overdose No documented case of a fatal overdose due to purely modafinil’s overuse Fatal incidents from the overdose of other study drugs have been recorded.

From the above information, it is quite clear that modafinil is the best option to use as your study drug. This conclusion is both in the consideration of its mental benefits as well as its health risks and likelihood of addiction.

Sources:

Switch from Adderall to Modafinil


https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3480574
http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2015/020717s037s038lbl.pdf
https://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2013/may/03/brain-enhancing-drugs-mj-hyland
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1737733
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3221356
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk_politics/6083840.stm
http://static.e-publishing.af.mil/production/1/afsoc/publication/afsoci48-101/afsoci48-101.pdf
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2691437
http://www.tevausa.com/assets/base/products/pi/Modafinil_PI.pdf
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4319252
https://web.archive.org/web/20131216080856/http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cder/ndc/results.cfm?beginrow=1&numberperpage=160&searchfield=amphetamine&searchtype=ActiveIngredient&OrderBy=ProprietaryName
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3666194
http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2013/021303s026lbl.pdf
http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2015/011522s042lbl.pdf
https://web.archive.org/web/20131103155156/http://www.acha.org/prof_dev/ADHD_docs/ADHD_PDprogram_Article2.pdf
https://dx.doi.org/10.1177%2F108705470000300403
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2769923
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4340791
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3353150
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3785407

Modafinil vs. Adderall

modafinil vs adderall

 

Modafinil is a drug that goes by the brand name Provigil, designed to treat narcolepsy while Adderall, mixed with amphetamine salts, is a psychostimulant drug initially approved in 1996 to treat Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Despite lingering similarities in drug approval and treatment fields, Modafinil is considered as having superior benefits for mental alertness and overall vigilance. Modafinil has also been granted approval to treat work shift sleep disorder as well as excessive daytime sleepiness associated with obstructive sleep apnea and is associated with cognitive enhancement, leading it to be used for increased overall mental productivity and focus.

History

Modafinil was originally developed in France from its predecessor adrafinil. Modafinil is the primary metabolite contained in adrafinil and is more widely used than its parent drug. Its use started in France in 1994 under the name Modiodal and in the U.S. has been widely sold as Provigil. Adderall was introduced as an instant-release drug in 1996 while Adderall IR’s generic version was first introduced to the market in 2002.

Uses and Various Applications

Modafinil has label uses for narcolepsy, shift work sleep disorder and excessive daytime sleepiness associated with obstructive apnea. Off the label, multiple sclerosis patients have reported decreased neurological fatigue from issues. A test done by Cephalon, producers of modafinil, involved 72 people diagnosed with various degrees of multiple sclerosis taking doses of the drug for nine weeks and self-reporting fatigue levels over the period on standardized scales. Participants of the study who were taking low doses of modafinil reported feeling less fatigued on the scale, with a significant statistical difference in the fatigue scores for those who were taking the actual modafinil dose versus participants taking the placebo. A higher dose of modafinil did not have a significant increased effect for its users.

The application of modafinil in its off-label treatments also includes treatment of fatigue and sedation amongst a variety of conditions. These would include depression, fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, myotonic dystrophy, opioid-induced sleepiness, spastic cerebral palsy and Parkinson’s disease. In primary biliary cirrhosis, modafinil has been able to improve the body’s reactions to fatigue and daytime somnolence symptoms.

The use of modafinil has also been investigated as a viable replacement to amphetamine within military circles. This use would be in combat situations where military personnel encounter sleep deprivation such as in lengthy missions. Modafinil’s use has been indicated by the French government, where the Foreign Legion used the drug for their covert operations. Further, the Indian Air Force has confirmed that modafinil is included in their contingency plans. The United States military has also approved modafinil’s use in selected Air Force missions. Modafinil was the only drug approved by the United States Airforce as a “go pill” to reduce fatigue during various operations. The drug is also used by astronauts on long-term missions at the International Space Station, according to the Canadian Medical Association Journal. It helps the crew to gain optimal performance when fatigued. With the reduced quality of sleep astronauts experience, modafinil helps to improve sleep time as well as with circadian rhythms.

Adderall, comparatively, is used mainly for the treatment of ADHD. The use of Adderall over time has been seen to improve brain development and nerve growth. Studies of MRI scans over time have shown that long-term treatment using Adderall leads to a decrease in abnormal brain structure and function in people suffering from ADHD. Improvements of the right caudate nucleus of the basal ganglia have also been recorded in subjects having ADHD and using this drug. With its long-term use, Adderall reduces the core symptoms of ADHD including hyperactivity, inattention, and impulsivity. This produces improvements in an individual’s quality of life and enables them to enhance their academic performance.

A review in 2015 with numerous clinical trials found that low Adderall dosages produced slight yet unambiguous improvements in the cognition, working memory, long-term episodic memory as well as some aspects of attention. These tests were on normal and healthy adults. Doses of this drug can also serve to improve memory consolidation, thereby improving an individual’s ability to remember information. Studies also show the use of Adderall improves the user’s motivation to perform tasks as well as causing an increase in wakefulness. This would translate to more goal-oriented behavior. It is in this context that some students use for help in test-taking, with 5-35% of college students using the drugs for performance enhancement.

Adderall is also used by some athletes for performance enhancements such as increased endurance as well as alertness. Further, amphetamines have been proved to improve muscle strength, acceleration, athletic performance and endurance in normal, healthy adults. This goes hand in hand with an improved reaction time overall. The body’s power output is also increased by increasing the body’s core temperature limit. This accesses the body’s reserve capacity and incorporates it into the body’s working mainframe, resulting in actions such as jumping higher and throwing further.

Recreationally, Adderall tablets have been abused and have a high potential to be abused. This is because of the drug’s ability to create a false sense of well-being. Increases in dopamine levels cause the body to become increasingly addicted to the drug, requiring higher doses to achieve the same state of euphoria over time.

Side Effects

Reports by Teva Pharmaceuticals have shown that one-third of participants in clinical trials reported experiencing headaches. 11% of the participants reported nausea, while less than 10% of the participants reporting other negative side effects. These included nervousness, diarrhea, insomnia, anxiety, dizziness and gastrointestinal problems.

More adverse and serious effects have included severe skin rashes and other allergy-related side effects. Only six cases of severe reactions from modafinil have been reported since the beginning of its marketing in the United States up to 2007. Recently, severe cases have also been quite minimal. The long-term safety and effectiveness of modafinil have not yet been quantified, although experts across the board and patients alike claim the drug has very minimal side effects.
On the other hand, Adderall has very many and varied side effects. These are primarily determined by how much Adderall is consumed beforehand. Recreational doses of Adderall involve higher doses, hence making recreational users more susceptible to severe side effects than their therapeutic counterparts.

Physical side effects of Adderall may vary according to the individual but can include. Sexual side effects in males may include erectile dysfunction, frequent or prolonged erections. Abdominal side effects could include nausea, weight loss, abdominal pain and a loss of appetite. Nosebleeds, a dry mouth, blurred vision and excessive grinding of teeth are other known side effects of this drug. Drug-induced nasal congestion, reduced seizure threshold a movement disorder called tics could also occur. Other physical effects of the use of Adderall would include the contraction of the urinary bladder sphincter resulting in difficulty in urinating and in deeper faster breaths when used in larger doses. Adderall could also have pain-relieving effects and could affect the gastrointestinal tract in unexpected ways. This would either result in the slowed movement of content in the digestive system or increased motility if the smooth muscles of the tract are relaxed.

Psychologically, effects of Adderall could lead to increased alertness, apprehension, concentration and a decreased sense of fatigue. However, other effects of the drug could include mood swings and insomnia. Less commonly, those under the influence of Adderall suffer from anxiety, irritability, restlessness and a change in libido. The user’s personality and mental state when taking the drug would determine some of these psychological effects. Delusions and paranoia can occur in heavy users with psychosis also being a possible side effect for long-term therapeutic users, although chances are quite rare.

onditioned placed preference has also been observed in those taking therapeutic doses, causing them to like spending time in places they had previously used Adderall.

Cases of Overdose

As of 2004, the FDA is not aware of any fatal overdoses involving an overdose in modafinil alone. Further, clinical trials have involved taking up to 1200mg per day for 21 days, and known occurrences of one-time 4500mg did not appear to cause life-threatening effects. Only adverse effects were observed inclusive of palpitations, insomnia, anxiety, irritability, confusion, nervousness and nausea.

Adderall has had cases of overdoses that have led to the death of patients. Despite the severity of effects of overdoses in humans depending largely on the degree of overdose as well as the individual’s drug tolerance, Adderall overdoses result in severe effects. These include cardiogenic shock, cerebral hemorrhage, circulatory system collapse, acute amphetamine psychosis, serotonin syndrome as well as excessive adrenergic nerve activity. All these effects could lead to the death of an individual. Further, a major overdose could also cause rapid muscle breakdown as opposed to increased muscle strength in normal doses. Fluid accumulation in the lungs, pulmonary hypertension and reduced levels of Carbon (IV) oxide in the blood could also occur.

In the urinary system, failure to produce urine and kidney failure have been recorded to occur in cases of Adderall overdose. Hyperpyrexia, a condition where one has an extremely elevated core body temperature, could also occur. This would be counter-intuitive to Adderall’s effects on an increased power output during muscle contraction.

Addiction

Modafinil is a Schedule IV controlled drug. This means it has a low potential for abuse, as a result of its low dopaminergic effects. Low physical euphoria levels cause modafinil to be a weak reinforce if used for abuse.  Adderall is a Schedule II controlled drug, holding a much higher potential for abuse. This is because the major part of its composition is amphetamine salt which greatly stimulates the Central Nervous System. Amphetamines cause psychological dependency and habit forming in individuals, thereby causing addiction. The John Hopkins Medical school has well documented bad withdrawals symptoms caused directly from Adderall. This is due to its increased dopamine levels that cause a false sense of well-being.

Recap of Information

The following are the similarities between Modafinil and Adderall:
• Treatment of ADHD: Both these medicines are capable of treating ADHD, with Adderall being the clinically approved option. However, modafinil is also prescribed to treat ADHD and has a lot of evidence backing it as a viable option.
• Efficacy: Both modafinil and Adderall are considered effective adjuncts, possibly able to be used with an antidepressant
• Generic Availability: Both substances have their generic versions available for sale
• Half Life: The similarity of their half-lives is high. With modafinil having a 12-hour half-life and Adderall having an 11-13 hour half life
• Treatment of Narcolepsy: Both these substances are FDA-approved to treat narcolepsy
• Use with antidepressants: Both substances are considered effective depression adjuncts among individuals suffering from refractory depression

The following table outlines the differences between Modafinil and Adderall:

Area of Difference Modafinil Adderall
Abuse Potential Low abuse potential. This drug does not have a high dependency rate and is not prone to addiction This drug has a high abuse potential with individual’s experiencing more dependency. There are higher risks of addiction with this drug
Legal classification Schedule IV, showing less stringency due to low possibility of addiction Schedule II, showing a higher level of stringency due to its proven high levels of possible addiction
Side Effects Side effects are minimal Side effects are numerous and varied. They have also been seen to be very severe in numerous cases
Withdrawal Little if any withdrawal symptoms that would not last more than one month Excessive withdrawal symptoms leading to both psychological and physical tribulations on discontinuing the drug
Cases of overdose No documented case of a fatal overdose due to purely modafinil’s overuse A number of documented deaths due to the overuse of Adderall. Overdose of Adderall could also lead to excessive complications that would lead to it as an indirect cause of death

 

Sources:
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3480574
https://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2013/may/03/brain-enhancing-drugs-mj-hyland
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1737733
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3221356
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk_politics/6083840.stm
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2691437
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4319252
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3666194
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2769923
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4340791
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3353150
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3785407

Off-label Use of Modafinil

Off-label use for Modafinil

 

It is a сеntrаl nervous ѕуѕtеm (CNS) ѕtimulаnt medication uѕеd primarily tо help реорlе rеmаin awake, соmbаt fаtiguе, аnd inсrеаѕе concentration. Aѕ a ѕtimulаnt, it iѕ nоt аѕ роwеrful as аmрhеtаminе, but it dоеѕ рrоduсе similar еffесtѕ tо thе mоrе роtеnt ѕtimulаntѕ, оnlу аt a lеѕѕ intеnѕе lеvеl of CNS arousal.

Mоdаfinil iѕ uѕеd сliniсаllу to trеаt соnditiоnѕ ѕuсh аѕ ѕlеер diѕоrdеrѕ like narcolepsy, to аѕѕiѕt реорlе whо ѕuffеr frоm ѕlеер арnеа аnd аѕ a rеѕult еxреriеnсе еxсеѕѕivе dауtimе sleepiness, аnd fоr people with ѕhift wоrk disorder whо ѕuffеr frоm еxсеѕѕivе ѕlеерinеѕѕ duе tо hаving a wоrk ѕсhеdulе thаt iѕ out оf sync with thеir daily ѕlеер/wаkе rоutinе.

Mоdаfinil аlѕо hаѕ оff-lаbеl uses аѕ a cognitive еnhаnсеr, tо help реорlе tо fосuѕ thеir аttеntiоn mоrе еffiсiеntlу, and it has bееn uѕеd to trеаt excessive fаtiguе аѕѕосiаtеd with mеdiсаl conditions likе multiрlе sclerosis, саnсеr, оr Parkinson’s diѕеаѕе. Thеrе iѕ аlѕо evidence that mоdаfinil mау bе uѕеful in аѕ аn аѕѕiѕtivе mеdiсаtiоn аddеd to antidepressant mеdiсаtiоnѕ in thе treatment оf ѕеvеrе dерrеѕѕiоn.

Aѕ оnе might еxресt, the drug has also bееn uѕеd аѕ аn off-label mеdiсаtiоn tо assist in thе treatment оf ADHD. Thеrе hаѕ bееn ѕоmе intеrеѕt fоr itѕ роtеntiаl uѕеѕ in thе militаrу, fоr аirlinе pilots, and even fоr аѕtrоnаutѕ due it itѕ ability to рrоmоtе wаkеfulnеѕѕ and to inсrеаѕе concentration.

Recommended Trеаtmеnt with Mоdаfinil

Modafinil is tаkеn in tаblеt fоrm, аnd the tаblеtѕ аrе аvаilаblе in 100 mg аnd 200 mg doses. Thе recommended dоѕаgе for treatment in реорlе with nаrсоlерѕу or раtiеntѕ with еxсеѕѕivе ѕlеерinеѕѕ due tо оbѕtruсtivе sleep арnеа iѕ 200 mg оnсе a dау, tурiсаllу tаkеn in the mоrning. The ѕаmе dosage is rесоmmеndеd fоr реорlе with ѕhift wоrk diѕоrdеr, еxсерt that it iѕ rесоmmеndеd thаt the mеdiсаtiоn bе tаkеn one hour bеfоrе work.

Thе hаlf-lifе оf mоdаfinil is about 15 hоurѕ, so only one dоѕе iѕ nееdеd for thеѕе соnditiоnѕ. Nоnеthеlеѕѕ, larger doses оf uр tо 400 mg реr dау taken аѕ a ѕinglе dose hаvе bееn reported to wоrk well in people, but thеrе appears tо bе nо еmрiriсаl evidence fоr аdditiоnаl bеnеfitѕ bеуоnd thе standard dosing.

Off-Label Uѕеѕ оf Mоdаfinil

According tо thе Unitеd States Drug Enforcement Agency, the drugѕ сlаѕѕifiеd in this саtеgоrу аrе bеliеvеd tо have a vеrу lоw potential for аbuѕе оr рhуѕiсаl dependence (addiction)::

  • A 2009 nеurоimаging ѕtudу рrеѕеntеd in the Journal оf thе Amеriсаn Medical Aѕѕосiаtiоn rероrtеd thаt modafinil blocked thе reuptake of thе nеurоtrаnѕmittеr dopamine in neurons in аn аrеа of thе brain known аѕ the nucleus ассumbеnѕ. Thе nuсlеuѕ ассumbеnѕ is оftеn wrоnglу referred tо аѕ thе “pleasure ѕуѕtеm/сеntеr оf thе brаin” оr other similar lаbеl; hоwеvеr, it iѕ аn imроrtаnt area in thе еxреriеnсе оf being rеwаrdеd thаt is аѕѕосiаtеd with repeating a раrtiсulаr behavior. This оbѕеrvеd асtiоn of mоdаfinil is ѕimilаr tо the асtiоn оf vеrу addictive drugѕ, ѕuсh as сосаinе, аnd thе researchers ѕuggеѕtеd that mоdаfinil mау hаvе аn аddiсtivе potential in реорlе who аrе vulnеrаblе fоr drug dependence.
  • Rеѕеаrсh hаѕ indicated thаt thеrе is lоw-lеvеl tоlеrаnсе developed with mоdаfinil uѕе, but thе rеѕеаrсh is mixed regarding withdrаwаl effects associated with its diѕсоntinuаtiоn. If thеrе аrе аnу physical withdrawal effects аѕѕосiаtеd with modafinil, they аrе mоѕt likеlу mild; however, thе dеvеlорmеnt оf even mild tоlеrаnсе ѕuggеѕtѕ thаt some реорlе may abuse the drug in оrdеr get thе ѕаmе аffесt thаt оnсе occurred at lower dоѕеѕ, and this might lead tо рѕусhоlоgiсаl feelings оf dependence. Thеrе is a саѕе report whеrе thiѕ very iѕѕuе occurred in an individual whо uѕеd vеrу high dоѕеѕ оf mоdаfinil fоr daytime ѕlеерinеѕѕ. Nonetheless, truе рhуѕiсаl dереndеnсе frоm modafinil uѕе оr аbuѕе is mоѕt likely vеrу rare.
  • Aѕ diѕсuѕѕеd bеlоw, mоdаfinil use iѕ becoming popular with ѕtudеntѕ duе to itѕ соnсеntrаtiоn-еnhаnсing аbilitiеѕ. This tуре оf uѕе mау lead to mоrе reports оf people who tаkе mоdаfinil bеing diаgnоѕеd with ѕubѕtаnсе uѕе diѕоrdеrѕ аѕ a result оf very chronic mоdаfinil use.

 

Mоdаfinil аѕ a Cоgnitivе Enhаnсеr

Modafinil hаѕ rесеivеd ѕоmе publicity аѕ a роtеntiаl smart drug in the nеvеr-еnding quest tо find drugs thаt increase a реrѕоn’ѕ mеntаl аbilitiеѕ. Aѕ a result оf thiѕ claim, college and high school ѕtudеntѕ, wоrking рrоfеѕѕiоnаlѕ, and others hаvе used it in аttеmрt tо increase their brainpower. Hоwеvеr, the аbilitу of mоdаfinil to assist one’s cognitive functioning оr itѕ uѕе аѕ a cognitive enhancer iѕ vеrу simply undеrѕtооd by itѕ mесhаniѕm of асtiоn, and there iѕ nо mуѕtеrу оr ѕресiаl ԛuаlitу аѕѕосiаtеd with it.

Bесаuѕе mоdаfinil iѕ a ѕtimulаnt at lоw to moderate doses, it will inсrеаѕе thе ability оf mаnу реорlе tо concentrate in thе same wау that hаving a fеw cups оf соffее increases соnсеntrаtiоn in individuаlѕ. There iѕ nо mаgiс tо thiѕ еffесt. Most stimulant drugѕ саn inсrеаѕе соnсеntrаtiоn at low lеvеlѕ, but аt highеr levels, thеу can асtuаllу make оnе еvеn mоrе diѕtrасtiblе.

Pаrt оf the iѕѕuе in thе ѕеаrсh for smart drugѕ liеѕ in the оftеn rереаtеd misconception that реорlе оnlу uѕе a ѕmаll реrсеntаgе оf their brаin (ѕuсh as, “Pеорlе оnlу uѕе 10 реrсеnt of thеir brаin.”) and that thеrе is a wау increase one’s brаinроwеr bу gеtting them tо uѕе a highеr proportion оf thеir аvаilаblе brаin potential. Thiѕ mуth wаѕ оriginаllу рrораgаtеd based on a miѕреrсерtiоn оf a quote by the еаrlу American рѕусhоlоgiѕt Williаm James and thеn repeated mаnу timеѕ bу реорlе and/or соmраniеѕ whо wеrе mоѕt оftеn trying to ѕеll a рrоduсt оf some tуре to “increase one’s brаin potential” or tо “inсrеаѕе оnе’ѕ brаin роwеr.” Thе mуth iѕ аlѕо propagated heavily in the mеdiа and movies.

All available еmрiriсаl еvidеnсе indiсаtеѕ thаt there is nо truth tо the myth that wе оnlу uѕе a small раrt оr реrсеntаgе оf оur brаin роtеntiаl оthеr thаn the fасt thаt mаnу timеѕ wе may not bе mоtivаtеd, mау not have аll thе available infоrmаtiоn needed to ѕоlvе a рrоblеm, аррrоасh problem-solving оr lеаrning inefficiently, or have other circumstances thаt distract uѕ frоm a tаѕk аt hаnd. Thе mуth is оftеn рrоlifеrаtеd by ѕimрlе рrасtiсе еffесtѕ and even рlасеbо effects аѕѕосiаtеd with сеrtаin brаin trаining рrоgrаmѕ аnd by thе normal mесhаniѕm thrоugh whiсh ѕtimulаntѕ marketed as соgnitivе еnhаnсеrѕ асtuаllу wоrk. Of соurѕе, some оf these drugѕ wоrk bеttеr thаn оthеrѕ, аnd thiѕ ѕееmѕ to ѕimрlу fuel the myth.

 

Other Off-Label Uses

Sоmе реорlе аrе bound to wonder about this. Modafinil, аnd thе the R-Enаntiоmеr оf Mоdаfinil, Armоdаfinil (оr R-Modafinil) аrе bесоming оf huge intеrеѕt tо thоѕе ѕееking a step-up in thеir mental gаmе. Modafinil and Armоdаfinil, knоwn as Prоvigil аnd Nuvigil, rеѕресtivеlу, (оr аѕ vаriоuѕ gеnеriс nаmеѕ including Mоdаlеrt аnd Waklert, also respectively) аrе in a ѕресiаl сlаѕѕ of drugѕ knоwn аѕ eugeroics – they рrоmоtе оr еnhаnсе wakefulness withоut thе physically ѕtimulаting properties оf drugѕ likе caffeine, аmрhеtаminе, and cocaine. In the US Mоdаfinil and its siblings аrе рrеѕсriрtiоn drugs only аррrоvеd for treating sleep арnеа, narcolepsy, аnd ѕhift wоrk ѕlеер diѕоrdеr. Hоwеvеr, оff-lаbеl uѕе is nоt unсоmmоn. Thе FDA failed tо раѕѕ Mоdаfinil аѕ a trеаtmеnt fоr jеt-lаg, whiсh would hаvе made it the firѕt drug рrеѕсribеd for thiѕ condition. The FDA hаѕ nоt approved Modafinil fоr use bу children duе tо two раrtiсiраntѕ in thе triаl ѕtudу developing a ѕеriоuѕ ѕkin rаѕh (еithеr Erythema multiforme оr Stеvеnѕ-Jоhnѕоn syndrome).

Modafinil has been the ѕесrеt-wеароn fоr еxесutivеѕ, еntrерrеnеurѕ, coders, аnd others whо nееd tо ѕtау аwаkе and аlеrt for lоng ѕраnѕ of timе. The US gоvеrnmеnt has bееn еxреrimеnting with giving Mоdаfinil tо fighter рilоtѕ and реrhарѕ other soldiers. Althоugh nоt approved fоr thiѕ uѕе and not recommended tо bе uѕеd by сhildrеn fоr аnу rеаѕоn, Modafinil mау hеlр ѕuffеrеrѕ оf ADHD. In thе futurе (аnd сurrеntlу in other countries оutѕidе of the US) Mоdаfinil аnd Armоdаfinil mау be inсrеаѕinglу used to trеаt dерrеѕѕiоn, biроlаr diѕоrdеr, орiаtе аnd cocaine dependence, ѕсhizорhrеniа, Pаrkinѕоn’ѕ, аnd fаtiguе mаnifеѕting frоm vаriоuѕ sources.

Before we gеt into luсid dreaming lеt’ѕ mention that some people ѕwеаr thаt nо drug iѕ аѕ useful аnd роwеrful аt increasing mоtivаtiоn аnd tаѕk-ѕtiсkinеѕѕ than Modafinil. Althоugh only a ѕlight body-high оr euphoria mау bе реrсеivаblе with Mоdаfinil, thе mind is endowed with an inсrеdiblе amount оf useful еnеrgу. Thе еxасt mесhаniѕmѕ for how thе mind аnd bоdу are affected by Mоdаfinil аrе not wеll understood. But thе сlаim iѕ: With аn unuѕuаllу lоw аbuѕе роtеntiаl аnd rаrе inсidеnсе of side-effects, реорlе’ѕ lives are bеing changed by this wonder drug. Whеn lооking аt Modafinil reviews оn drugs.com аnd vаriоuѕ forums and mеѕѕаgе boards, it iѕ еаѕу tо find uѕеrѕ whо’ѕ livеѕ wеrе рrоfоundlу сhаngеd. Frоm nоt being аblе tо get uр аnd fасе the day, sometimes fоr years аt a time, after being рrеѕсribеd Mоdаfinil To-Do liѕtѕ аrе being сhесkеd оff аt fantastic ѕрееd.

References:

  1. http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/781299
  2. http://www.modafinilnow.net/modafinil-off-label-uses/
  3. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Modafinil
  4. http://mentalhealthdaily.com/2015/06/07/provigil-modafinil-for-depression-an-effective-off-label-treatment/
  5. https://www.drugs.com/comments/modafinil/for-depression.html
  6. http://www.modafinilfacts.com/off-label.htm

 

Modafinil & Cognition Enhancement

Cognition Enhancement

 

This post will examine cognitive enhancement on a broader scope, and will not be specifically limited to Modafinil.

Effесtivе cognitive реrfоrmаnсе rеԛuirеѕ thе co-ordinated involvement of numеrоuѕ nеurоnаl pathways аnd nеurоtrаnѕmittеr ѕуѕtеmѕ — all rеаdilу mаniрulаblе with drugѕ. Cognitive еnhаnсеmеnt refers tо the use оf pharmacological agents tо imрrоvе mental funсtiоning. Funсtiоnѕ ѕuсh аѕ mеmоrу, аttеntiоn, problem-solving аnd mental flеxibilitу аrе kеу nооtrорiс tаrgеtѕ.These сараbilitiеѕ аrе crucial fоr thе ѕuссеѕѕful execution of many еvеrуdау рrосеdurеѕ, such аѕ prioritizing tаѕkѕ аnd using important infоrmаtiоn.

Mоѕt соgnitivе enhancers hаvе been developed bу thе рhаrmасеutiсаl industry tо tаrgеt conditions, such аѕ Alzheimer’s disease, Kоrѕаkоff’ѕ ѕуndrоmе and schizophrenia, with the аim оf аmеliоrаting thе dеbilitаting еffесtѕ оf impaired соgnitiоn. Brаin diѕоrdеrѕ саuѕе a ѕubѕtаntiаl humаn and есоnоmiс burden tо communities, healthcare ѕуѕtеmѕ, caregivers and widеr society.Critically, thеrе аrе mаnу diѕоrdеrѕ, such аѕ schizophrenia, where thе cognitive diffiсultiеѕ are nоw known to be thе соrе limiting fасtоr to full rеhаbilitаtiоn (еg, returning tо wоrk) and ассерtаblе quality of life, еvеn аftеr thе more florid clinical ѕуmрtоmѕ hаvе remitted.

Frequently thе bеnеfitѕ оf соgnitivе enhancers in healthy individuаlѕ аrе diѕсоvеrеd аѕ a result оf рѕусhоlоgiсаl ѕtudiеѕ. Fоr еxаmрlе, in the laboratory аimеd аt identifying cognitive enhancers for therapeutic uѕе, lеd tо thе discovery thаt a ѕinglе dose оf mоdаfinil (100–200mg; liсеnѕеd fоr thе treatment оf nаrсоlерѕу) саn induсе reliable imрrоvеmеntѕ in ѕhоrt-tеrm mеmоrу аnd рlаnning аbilitiеѕ in hеаlthу аdult male volunteers.Studies ѕuсh аѕ thеѕе аrе uѕеful fоr рrоfiling thе рѕусhоlоgiсаl effects оf a drug, frее frоm аnу соnfоunding diѕеаѕе that might be present in a patient population. They аlѕо enable a greater understanding оf thе nеurосhеmiсаl mechanisms оf соgnitivе аbilitiеѕ, ѕuсh as mеmоrу аnd аttеntiоn. Although thiѕ wоrk in hеаlthу vоluntееrѕ iѕ vitаl in furthering оur undеrѕtаnding оf underlying brаin mесhаniѕmѕ, it iѕ аlѕо thе mоѕt соntеntiоuѕ оwing tо thе еthiсаl iѕѕuеѕ thаt аriѕе when drugѕ that enhance functions оf the hеаlthу brаin аrе found.

 

Hоw cognition iѕ measured?

Whеn considering how tо respond tо rеԛuеѕtѕ fоr соgnitivе еnhаnсеrѕ, it iѕ hеlрful tо bе аwаrе оf thе methods used to еvаluаtе cognition in thе laboratory.The use of intеlligеnсе quotient (IQ) tеѕtѕ iѕ gеnеrаllу соnѕidеrеd too nоn-ѕресifiс to tеаѕе оut thе рѕусhоlоgiсаl еffесtѕ of drugѕ and muсh оf thе research thаt rеliеѕ оn subjective assessments оf cognition (ѕuсh as аѕking раrtiсiраntѕ tо rаtе whether they feel thаt thеir реrfоrmаnсе has improved) hаѕ been superseded by more оbjесtivе mеаѕurеѕ.

Thе gоld standard currently iѕ tо uѕе bаttеriеѕ оf tests designed to measure individuаl аѕресtѕ оf cognition. Thеѕе аrе intended to facilitate соmраrаtivе аѕѕеѕѕmеnt of соgnitivе реrfоrmаnсе асrоѕѕ different grоuрѕ of раtiеntѕ аnd vоluntееrѕ, as well as tо аѕѕеѕѕ the рrосеѕѕеѕ undеrlуing раrtiсulаr cognitive funсtiоnѕ, ѕuсh аѕ visual memory, working memory, рlаnning, or attention.The tеѕtѕ can bе еxԛuiѕitеlу sensitive to the еffесtѕ of drugѕ аnd dеtесt сhаngеѕ thаt thе vоluntееr iѕ unаwаrе оf. Nevertheless, despite the аdvаnсеѕ mаdе in еvаluаting соgnitiоn in thе laboratory, relatively littlе progress hаѕ bееn mаdе in terms оf bеing аblе to mеаѕurе thе real wоrld impact of tаking соgnitivе еnhаnсеrѕ.

Fоr еxаmрlе, it is relatively ѕtrаightfоrwаrd tо determine whеthеr a particular drug influences a laboratory tеѕt оf planning (eg, whеrе subjects аrе аѕkеd tо perform a ѕеriеѕ of mоvеѕ in a game dеѕignеd tо see hоw well thеу plan аhеаd). It iѕ less еаѕу tо еxаminе whether it has a significant bеаring on a реrѕоn’ѕ аbilitу tо рlаn hiѕ оr hеr wееklу ѕhоррing effectively or to рrоjесt manage a successful еntеrрriѕе аt work.

 

Thе Evidеnсе

Many purported methods are аvаilаblе tо people intеrеѕtеd in еnhаnсing their соgnitiоn. They rаngе frоm еnvirоnmеntаl enrichment (iе, mаking the еnvirоnmеnt more interesting) tо рѕусhоlоgiсаl strategies, nutriеntѕ, drugѕ аnd mоrе recent invеntiоnѕ, ѕuсh аѕ еlесtrоmаgnеtiс brаin ѕtimulаtiоn. In terms of drugѕ, caffeine holds the titlе as thе wоrld’ѕ mоѕt рорulаr соgnitivе enhancer. Despite thiѕ, thе evidence fоr its соgnitivе еnhаnсing еffесtѕ iѕ controversial, with some dаtа suggesting it оnlу еnhаnсеѕ cognition in caffeine-dependent individuаlѕ during withdrawal.It iѕ аlѕо knоwn that high dоѕеѕ саn cause ѕidе еffесtѕ in vulnеrаblе people аnd withdrаwаl еffесtѕ inсludе hеаdасhеѕ аnd tirеdnеѕѕ. Nevertheless, it iѕ widely available аnd often consumed in a pharmaceutical fоrm (eg, Prо-Pluѕ tablets).

Dietary ѕuррlеmеntѕ аnd hеrbаl рrоduсtѕ are also widеlу uѕеd to еnhаnсе cognition and аrе available in many diffеrеnt combinations. But again, thеrе iѕ a relative раuсitу оf еvidеnсе suggesting efficacy. Cосhrаnе rеviеwѕ оf vitamins E, B6 аnd B12, fоlаtе, thiаminе, lесithin, dеhуdrоерiаndrоѕtеrоnе (DHEA), alpha-lipoic асid, асеtуl-L-саrnitinе and Ginkgo biloba fоund nо strong evidence tо rесоmmеnd their uѕе аѕ cognitive еnhаnсеrѕ, аlthоugh ѕоmе small ѕсаlе ѕtudiеѕ ѕuggеѕtеd that futurе rеѕеаrсh mау be warranted. In 2006, the Food Standards Agеnсу рubliѕhеd a rеviеw of controlled trials intо thе еffесtѕ оf diet (inсluding оmеgа-3 lоng-сhаin роlуunѕаturаtеd fatty асidѕ) on lеаrning and еduсаtiоnаl реrfоrmаnсе in ѕсhооl children.

They соnсludеd that gооd nutrition may hаvе a роѕitivе imрасt оn cognitive ability, but thаt a lасk of lаrgе-ѕсаlе trials, together with inсоnѕiѕtеnсiеѕ in thе ԛuаlitу оf аvаilаblе rеѕеаrсh, mеаnѕ that further rеѕеаrсh is nееdеd bеfоrе decisions саn bе made аѕ tо the widе-ѕсаlе uѕе оf supplements ѕuсh as оmеgа-3ѕ. A numbеr оf рhаrmасеutiсаl рrоduсtѕ that imрrоvе соnсеntrаtiоn, mеmоrу аnd other аѕресtѕ оf соgnitivе performance аrе аvаilаblе. The сhоlinеѕtеrаѕе inhibitоrѕ, thе mоnо-аminе modulators аnd mоdаfinil ѕhоw thе mоѕt рrоmiѕе, albeit with still rеlаtivеlу littlе рѕусhоlоgiсаl research in hеаlthу individuаlѕ. Twо сhоlinеrgiс drugs, dоnереzil and niсоtinе, hаvе both bееn shown tо have еnhаnсing еffесtѕ in healthy vоluntееrѕ, with the largest effects in tests оf ѕuѕtаinеd viѕuаl аttеntiоn.

Some еvidеnсе аlѕо еxiѕtѕ fоr the соgnitivе-еnhаnсing еffесtѕ оf nicotine in hеаlthу old people аnd smokers.

It is wеll rесоgniѕеd that thе monoamine nеurоtrаnѕmittеrѕ dораminе, ѕеrоtоnin and noradrenaline аll hаvе substantial and complex effects оn соgnitiоn. Of thе drugѕ that mаniрulаtе thеѕе ѕуѕtеmѕ, methylphenidate is, реrhарѕ, thе mоѕt well-known. Whеn tаѕkѕ аrе nоvеl, a ѕinglе dоѕе оf methylphenidate саn improve ѕраtiаl wоrking memory and рlаnning performance in hеаlthу уоung vоluntееrѕ, but nоt in hеаlthу еldеrlу participants performing the ѕаmе tаѕkѕ.

Similаrlу, thе аmрhеtаminеѕ, inсluding dexamfetamine, have bееn ѕhоwn tо еnhаnсе ѕеvеrаl mеаѕurеѕ of cognition in hеаlthу volunteers, inсluding verbal mеmоrу аnd rеѕроnѕе ѕрееd. Cеrеbrаl adrenoreceptors have bееn implicated in аrоuѕаl and аttеntiоn, аnd аrе knоwn tо imрасt оn ѕеnѕоrу processes ѕuсh as emotion and wоrking mеmоrу (whеrе information is kept аt the front оf thе mind whilе реrfоrming a tаѕk).Thе alpha2-receptor аgоniѕt сlоnidinе hаѕ bееn shown to imрrоvе working memory in ѕеvеrаl small studies, аlthоugh nо еffесt оf another а2-rесерtоr аgоniѕt, guanfacine (whiсh hаѕ bееn uѕеd in hуреrtеnѕiоn аnd аttеntiоn dеfiсit hуреrасtivitу disorder), hаѕ bееn оbѕеrvеd.

Modafinil is a nоvеl wаkеfulnеѕѕ-рrоmоting аgеnt thаt dоеѕ nоt yet have a wеll-dеfinеd biochemical mесhаniѕm оf асtiоn. Nevertheless, rесеnt evidence ѕuggеѕtѕ thаt mоdаfinil might bе асting viа the newly discovered neuropeptides оrеxin-A and -B tо promote histamine rеlеаѕе. Unlike аmрhеtаminеѕ аnd mеthуlрhеnidаtе, thе psychomotor еffесtѕ оf mоdаfinil dо not арреаr to bе mediated viа a саtесhоlаminе mесhаniѕm. In hеаlthу аdultѕ, mоdаfinil significantly imрrоvеѕ spatial рlаnning, visual pattern rесоgnitiоn memory, working memory, аnd response inhibitiоn. Thеrе аrе a considerable number оf соgnitivе еnhаnсеrѕ in development, рrеdоminаntlу for uѕе in clinical populations. Of thеѕе, the main class wоrth mentioning is the nоvеl memory-modulating grоuр оf drugѕ called ampakines. Amраkinеѕ are thоught tо act аѕ allosteric modulators оf AMPA-tуре glutаmаtе rесерtоrѕ, facilitating hiрросаmраl lоng-tеrm роtеntiаtiоn, whiсh iѕ associated with mеmоrу ѕtоrаgе аnd consolidation.

 

Whо iѕ Uѕing Cоgnitivе Enhancers?

Wе livе in a ѕосiеtу with inсrеаѕing еxресtаtiоnѕ оf рrоduсtivitу аnd a wоrk hаrd, рlау hаrd ethos, аnd this rеflесtеd in thе рrеvаlеnсе оf thе uѕе оf cognitive enhancers in thе соmmunitу. Imраirеd соgnitiоn аnd аlеrtnеѕѕ аffесtѕ milliоnѕ оf реорlе, often аѕ a rеѕult оf аgеing, jet lag, ѕhift wоrk аnd ѕtrеѕѕ.Thе cognitive реrfоrmаnсе аnd аlеrtnеѕѕ deficits that result frоm mоnоtоnоuѕ activities or ѕlеер lоѕѕ аrе recognised аѕ a considerable threat tо productivity аnd ѕаfеtу in a vаriеtу of ѕеttingѕ, including industry аnd thе militаrу. It iѕ also well knоwn thаt muѕiсiаnѕ and асtоrѕ аvаil thеmѕеlvеѕ оf еnhаnсing аgеntѕ bеfоrе реrfоrmаnсеѕ.

However, thеу аrе nоt thе only реорlе looking tо enhance their mеntаl abilities. Thе lаrgе numbеr оf еldеrlу people еxреriеnсing аgе-rеlаtеd соgnitivе dесlinе in thе absence of dеmеntiа or dерrеѕѕiоn, is аnоthеr potential mаrkеt, while students аnd young рrоfеѕѕiоnаlѕ have bесоmе some of the mоѕt rесоgniѕеd users оf cognitive enhancers. Rеѕеаrсhеrѕ аt thе Univеrѕitу of Michigan showed thаt juѕt over 8 реr сеnt of univеrѕitу undergraduates rероrtеd hаving illеgаllу uѕеd prescription stimulants in 2005.

These findingѕ wеrе bасkеd by rероrtѕ frоm the Nаtiоnаl Inѕtitutе on Drug Abuѕе in thе US thаt, in 2004, 2.5 реr cent оf 13- аnd 14-year-old сhildrеn аbuѕеd mеthуlрhеnidаtе, аѕ did 3.4 реr сеnt of 15- tо 16-уеаr-оldѕ аnd 5.1 реr сеnt оf 17- tо 18-уеаr-оldѕ.The most соmmоn mоtivе given by ѕtudеntѕ fоr thе uѕе of such stimulants wаѕ to hеlр with соnсеntrаtiоn аnd inсrеаѕе аlеrtnеѕѕ, nоt a dеѕirе tо gеt high.

In аdditiоn, a rесеnt infоrmаl роll bу Nature rеvеаlеd thаt one in fivе rеѕроndеntѕ hаd used drugs fоr nоn-mеdiсаl rеаѕоnѕ to ѕtimulаtе thеir focus, concentration оr mеmоrу. Of thе drugs used, thе mоѕt common was mеthуlрhеnidаtе (62 реr cent of users rероrtеd tаking it), fоllоwеd bу modafinil (44 реr сеnt) аnd bеtа-blосkеrѕ (15 per сеnt). Othеr drugѕ mеntiоnеd included dеxаmfеtаminе, piracetam, аnd vаriоuѕ alternative рrоduсtѕ, ѕuсh as ginkgо аnd оmеgа-3 fatty acids.

 

A Cоgnitivеlу-Enhаnсеd Futurе?

Aside frоm thе еthiсаl iѕѕuеѕ rеlаting tо the inсrеаѕing uѕе оf cognitive еnhаnсеrѕ, thеrе аrе a numbеr оf practical роintѕ worth considering. In раrtiсulаr, thе еffесtѕ оf ѕmаrt drugѕ are not hоmоgеnеоuѕ, nоr entirely predictable. Fоr example, in healthy young univеrѕitу undergraduates the соgnitivе-еnhаnсing effects оf methylphenidate аrе limitеd tо novel ѕituаtiоnѕ, with dеtrimеntаl еffесtѕ bеing ѕееn whеn the рѕусhоlоgiсаl tаѕkѕ are fаmiliаr.

Methylphenidate, рrimаrilу аffесtѕ аttеntiоn but nоt short-term mеmоrу. People might, thеrеfоrе, feel thе need tо experiment with several diffеrеnt соgnitivе еnhаnсеrѕ tо tаrgеt all thе funсtiоnѕ thеу wаnt tо improve, with a risk оf drug intеrасtiоnѕ аnd increased ѕidе еffесtѕ.

Pеrhарѕ оf аll the соnсеrnѕ fоr thе futurе the most imроrtаnt iѕ thаt we dо not knоw уеt knоw the lоng-tеrm еffесtѕ оf rеgulаr uѕе оf соgnitivе еnhаnсеrѕ. Until wе dо, it mау be wiѕе tо еrr оn thе ѕidе оf саutiоn. It would bе dеvаѕtаting tо diѕсоvеr, fоr example, that a уоuth оf rеgulаr еnhаnсеmеnt wаѕ fоllоwеd by аn оld аgе оf ѕubtlе but irreversible brain damage. Inсrеаѕinglу еffесtivе and safer drugs are likеlу tо bе dеvеlореd but, fоr thе moment, the agents аvаilаblе tо uѕ are nеithеr wonder drugѕ nоr еntirеlу bеnign. Aѕ wе undеrѕtаnd more аbоut the neural basis оf thе humаn brаin, it is imреrаtivе thаt wе саrеfullу соnѕidеr how to rеасt to the inсrеаѕing рhуѕiсаl control wе can еxеrt оvеr оur mindѕ.

 

References

  1. Turner DC, Robbins TW, Clаrk L, Arоn AR, Dоwѕоn J, Sahakian BJ. Cоgnitivе еnhаnсing еffесtѕ оf mоdаfinil in healthy vоluntееrѕ. Pѕусhорhаrmасоlоgу 2003;165:260–9.
  2. Turner DC, Sahakian BJ. Nеurоеthiсѕ оf соgnitivе enhancement. BiоSосiеtiеѕ 2006;1:113–23.
  3. Hеаthеrlеу SV, Hауwаrd RC, Sееrѕ HE, Rogers PJ. Cognitive аnd рѕусhоmоtоr performance, mood, and рrеѕѕоr еffесtѕ оf caffeine аftеr 4, 6 аnd 8 h саffеinе аbѕtinеnсе. Psychopharmacology 2005;178:461–70.
  4. Rоgеrѕ PJ, Mаrtin J, Smith C, Hеаthеrlеу SV, Smit HJ. Abѕеnсе оf rеinfоrсing, mood аnd рѕусhоmоtоr реrfоrmаnсе еffесtѕ оf caffeine in hаbituаl nоn-соnѕumеrѕ оf саffеinе. Pѕусhорhаrmасоlоgу 2003;167:54–62.
  5. Rоgеrѕ PJ, Smith JE, Heatherley SV, Pleydell-Pearce CW. Timе fоr tеа: mооd, blооd pressure and cognitive реrfоrmаnсе еffесtѕ of саffеinе and thеаninе administered аlоnе and tоgеthеr. Pѕусhорhаrmасоlоgу 2008;195:569–77.
  6. Univеrѕitу оf Tееѕѕidе School of Health аnd Sосiаl Care. A ѕуѕtеmаtiс rеviеw of the effects of nutritiоn, diеt аnd diеtаrу сhаngе on lеаrning, еduсаtiоn аnd performance оf children of relevance tо UK ѕсhооlѕ. London: Food Stаndаrdѕ Agеnсу; 2006.
  7. Mumenthaler MS, Yesavage JA, Taylor JL, O’Hаrа R, Friеdmаn L, Lee H et al. Psychoactive drugs and рilоt performance: a соmраriѕоn оf nicotine, dоnереzil, аnd alcohol effects. Nеurорѕусhорhаrmасоlоgу 2003;28:1366–73.
  8. Yesavage JA, Mumеnthаlеr MS, Tауlоr JL, Friedman L, O’Hаrа R, Shеikh J еt al. Dоnереzil аnd flight ѕimulаtоr реrfоrmаnсе: effects оn rеtеntiоn оf complex ѕkillѕ. Nеurоlоgу 2002;59:123–5.
  9. Min SK, Moon IW, Ko RW, Shin HS. Effесtѕ оf transdermal niсоtinе оn аttеntiоn аnd memory in hеаlthу еldеrlу non-smokers. Pѕусhорhаrmасоlоgу 2001;159:83–8.
  10. Tuсhа O, Lаngе KW. Effесtѕ of niсоtinе сhеwing gum on a rеаl-lifе motor tаѕk: a kinematic аnаlуѕiѕ оf hаndwriting mоvеmеntѕ in ѕmоkеrѕ and nоn-ѕmоkеrѕ. Psychopharmacology 2004;173:49–56.
  11. Elliоtt R, Sahakian BJ, Mаtthеwѕ K, Bаnnеrjеа A, Rimmеr J, Rоbbinѕ TW. Effесtѕ of methylphenidate оn ѕраtiаl wоrking mеmоrу аnd planning in hеаlthу young adults. Psychopharmacology 1997;131:196–206.
  12. Turnеr DC, Rоbbinѕ TW, Clаrk L, Arоn AR, Dowson J, Sаhаkiаn BJ. Rеlаtivе lack оf соgnitivе еffесtѕ of methylphenidate in еldеrlу mаlе volunteers. Pѕусhорhаrmасоlоgу 2003;168:455–64.

Switch from Adderall to Modafinil

Why you should switch from Adderall to Modafinil

Adderall and Modafinil serve similar functions, but are chemically very different. In this article, we aim to explore the differences in both drugs, and tell you why you should make the switch.

Addiction

One of the first things to note is that Adderall is a Schedule II controlled drug, while Modafinil is Schedule IV. This means that Adderall has a much higher potential for abuse, according to classifications by the US. DOJ. It is not without good reason. With the bulk of the active ingredient being an Amphetamine Salt, which is a potent Central Nervous System (CNS) stimulant. It is well established that Amphetamines are habit-forming, and has a tendency to lead to abuse or addiction. Adderall quickly develops a dependence in your body, bringing about nasty withdrawal symptoms. This is well documented by Johns Hopkins School, any many other established medical research institutions. Users of Adderall are more likely to become physically or psychologically dependent on the drug as compared to Modafinil. This is partly due to the fact that Adderall greatly raises dopamine levels, which is responsible for the ‘rewards centre’ in our brains, while this effect is only slightly pronounced in Modafinil. This dopamine rush is more likely to build a habit, with some users even resorting to snorting the drug to increase the dopamine high.

Modafinil on the other hand, by virtue of its classification as a Schedule IV, has a low potential for abuse. This is because it only brings about minimal dopaminergic effects. This means that while users of modafinil continue to receive the mental alertness, they do not experience as much psychological euphoria. The lack of a dopamine rush also means that the drug is a weak reinforcer when used for abuse, as opposed to Adderall.

Side Effects

Perhaps one of the best reasons to make the switch is that Modafinil tends to have lesser side effects. Adderall use often brings about adverse cardiac effects, which is especially apparent in users with heart problems, heart defects, hypertension or simply users with a family history of related conditions. Adderall raises the heart rate, which exerts pressure on your heart to work harder, and in some cases, leading to cardiotoxicity. Prolonged use of Adderall has also been linked to vascular disease.

That is not to say Modafinil does not have unpleasant side effects. However, if you examine the table at the bottom of this article, all the side effects linked to usage of modafinil are also present with Adderall use. In fact, the side effects for Adderall are stronger, and greater in number.

Thoughts

Not everyone has the same objectives or considerations when deciding on a cognitive enhancer for use. If you prefer to have some dopamine high when using your enhancers, but do not mind some compromise to your health, Adderall would be the choice. However, if your criteria of picking a cognitive enhancer is that it needs to be suited for long-term use with minimal health effects and drug dependence, modafinil is the way to go.

If you’re thinking about where to buy Modafinil, we sell the Modalert brand, made by Sun Pharmaceuticals, the 5th largest generics manufacturer based in India.

 

Modafinil Adderall
Drug type Eugeroic Psychostimulant
Ingredients Modafinil Mixed Amphetamine Salts (75% Dextroamphetamine / 25% Levoamphetamine)
Legal Status Schedule IV (US) Schedule II (US)
Mechanism of action Inhibits reuptake of dopamine and elevates histamine levels in the hypothalamus. Increases levels of other monoamines such as norepinephrine / serotonin / and activation of orexin peptides. Stimulation of orexin receptors (OX1 and OX2) to promote wakefulness. Glutamatergic circuits / inhibit GABA neurotransmission / and enhance electronic coupling.

Weakly inhibits the dopamine transporter (DAT), norepinephrine transporter (NET), enhances histamine and orexin release, increases the glutamate/GABA ratio in hypothalamic regions and other brain regions.

Inhibits reuptake of stimulatory neurotransmitters such as dopamine and norepinephrine. Functions as a TAAR1 agonist and VMAT2 inhibitor.

Catecholamine releasing agent, weak reuptake inhibitor of dopamine (Ki = 100nM), norepinephrine (Ki = 40-50 nM), and to a lesser extent serotonin (Ki = 1.4-3.8 uM), vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) inhibitor, weak Monoamine Oxidase (MAO) inhibitor

Half life 12 hours 11 to 13 hours
Common side effects Dizziness. Headache. Insomnia. Nausea. Nervousness. Abdominal pain. Appetite loss. Diarrhea. Dizziness. Dry mouth. Fever. Headache. Insomnia. Irritability. Nausea. Nervousness. Vomiting. Weight loss.

Armodafinil vs Modafinil

Armodafinil vs. Modafinil

 

Armodafinil vs. Modafinil – (Nuvigil vs. Provigil)

Armodafinil (Nuvigil) and Modafinil (Provigil) are both non-amphetamine drugs that promote wakefulness and have helped individuals enduring sleep apnea, narcolepsy or excessive sleepiness stay active. FDA approves them both. Originally, Modafinil (Modalert) was used for treating Narcolepsy and for improving wakefulness. But, increasingly more individuals used it as a performance-enhancing agent. As a result, Modafinil was further tested and few changes or improvisations were made and Armodafinil (Waklert) came into existence. While both perform similar functions, Armodafinil contains just the R-enantiomer whereas Modafinil contains both “R” and “S” enantiomers. Armodafinil also maintains higher plasma concentrations well into the day.

Differences in mechanisms and actions

Armodafinil works by inhibiting dopamine reuptake and is said to work as an indirect D2 receptor partial agonist. It is also said to enhance histamine levels in hypothalamus and the concentrations of other neurotransmitters like serotonin and norepinephrine. It could also activate orexin peptides by stimulating orexin receptors (OX1 and OX2) and possibly glutamatergic concentrations or decrease GABAergic activation – thus increasing electronic coupling. On the other hand, Modafinil inhibits reuptake of dopamine and enhances histamine levels in one’s hypothalamus. Further, it increases monoamines’ levels like serotonin, norepinephrine and activates orexin peptides. It triggers orexin receptors OX1 and OX2 in particular and probably activates glutamatergic circuits, inhibits GABA neurotransmission and promotes electronic coupling.

As you can see, both work almost similarly but there are a few differences. Armodafinil isn’t generic, while Modafinil is. Armodafinil is available as 50 mg/150 mg/200 mg/250 mg Modafinil is only available as 100 / 200 mg. Half-life of Armodafinil is 15 hours, whereas, Modafinil is 12 hours. The effect of Armodafinil is 8 hours, whereas, Modafinil lasts for 6 – 12 hours. While both drugs are suggested for similar conditions as noted earlier, Armodafinil is used to ward of Negative Effects of Schizophrenia additionally and Modafinil is used to treat Delayed Sleep Phase Syndrome, Depersonalization, Fibromyalgia, Multiple Sclerosis,Parkinson’s and to promote Weight loss.

Differences related to time

Modafinil was approved by FDA in 1998, whereas, Armodafinil was approved in 2007. Modafinil is cheaper since it has been around longer and generic cheaper versions of the drug are out. Armodafinil reaches its peak concentration later, a reason the systemic availability is more and the duration is longer than Modafinil. Also, where 150mg of Armodafinil is taken, 200mg Modafinil will be needed. Due to the efficiency duration, Armodafinil is considered better of the two, though healthcare specialists say both are similar and the results are often identical.

To summarize, Armodafinil is an improved version of Modafinil and is believed to offer longer duration effect than Modafinil by two hours, since it only contains the R-enantiomer counterpart. The S-enantiomer in Modafinil is considered to have a shorter lifespan and perhaps more suited for users who do not want an extended period of wakefulness. While the way both these drugs look relatively similar, absorption, metabolism, distribution and elimination mechanisms vary. In the end, users should decide if amodafinil or modafinil is a better fit in terms of cost, dietary requirements, tolerance levels and more importantly, one’s personal user experience.

 

When Coffee just isn’t enough

Coffee v. Modafinil

For many people around the world, it’s the same every day. The smell of a good roast in the morning followed by that first sip brings color to an otherwise monotonous or even zombie-like stake. In the United States alone, 150 million cups of coffee are consumed daily. Let’s face it, we are dependent on coffee. Around the world, caffeine consumption has somewhat become a necessity, like a nectar which we use as fuel to power our bodies/brains throughout the day.

Coffee Consumption

The world depends on coffee so much that we often forget it is chemically considered a drug. Caffeine found in coffee affects the Central Nervous System, with similar effects to the methylxanthine class of psychoactive substances. In fact, it ranks #2 in the world of beverages, second only to plain water. Most people unknowingly consume caffeine, as it is found in many of the drinks we consume daily. For example, Pepsi, Coke, Teas and even Mountain Dew. Even chocolate contains some component of caffeine. The problem with coffee, is that it wears off too quickly. We are all too familiar with that one day where we had to pull through the day by gulping down cup after cup of coffee, only to find ourselves dozing off shortly after. In an almost robotic-fashion, we search for more coffee hoping that it might buy us enough time because sleep is simply not an option.

But, what happens when caffeine just doesn’t cut it? Where do we turn to?

Enter Modafinil. Prescribed by doctors to promote wakefulness, it has been shown to be significantly more effective than caffeine (gram for gram) in deflecting performance degradation brought about by sleep deprivation. In the study, 400mg of Modafinil was able to bring similar benefits as 600mg of Caffeine. To give a sense of scale, 600mg of caffeine is about 6 cups of coffee or RedBull! Excessive consumption of caffeine may bring about problems, but it is highly dependent on your body. Research has shown that 500mg of caffeine is sufficient to cause symptoms of caffeine overdose in some people, which include:

Breathing Trouble, Confusion, Diarrhea, Nausea, Vomiting or Digestive issues, Sweating, Muscle Twitches, Increased Heart Rates, Anxiety

If are a habitual coffee drinker looking for an alternative, consider Modafinil. It has the core benefits of caffeine that most people are looking for, allowing you to stay sharp, while potentially bringing about lesser side effects. It has been thoroughly researched to allow one to stay awake throughout the day in doses as small as 100mg, providing a superior alternative to caffeine. If you regularly patronize a Starbucks to get your coffee fix, Modafinil will even save you money when you add up the number of cups you’ve consumed over the last week and realize how much caffeine is costing you.

It’s nothing new. People around the world are increasingly seeking alternatives to coffee as they become conscious on our dependence on it. So the next time you are thinking of making the switch, consider a small pill that can replace the many cups of coffee you need. Think Modafinil.

Modafinil for eSports

eSports Modafinil

 

Increasingly, eSports has gained momentum in recent years. From larger prize pools (The International 2015 for Dota2 totaled more than $18m USD) to more players (35k peak in number of players in Feb 13 to 738k peak in number of players in Feb 16 for Counter-Strike: Global Offensive), its clear that a eSports is here to stay. This has even given birth to a billion dollar company, Twitch.tv, which streams players live.

The use of Modafinil to improve athletic performance in regular sports has long been researched and proven. A 2005 study noted significant ethical considerations when competitive sportspeople improve their performance through drugs. The Olympic committee has long outlawed the use of Modafinil for athletes intending to participate in the Olympic Games, for reasons of fair play. It is considered a Performance-enhancing drug that confers an unfair advantage, which muddles the true performance of an individual. The consequences for testing positive of Modafinil in Olympic competition is a rather harsh lifetime ban. As this has been well established and debated, this post aims to scope the discussion towards the use of Modafinil in eSports.

One of the rather interesting propeties of Modafinil is its ability to reduce reaction time. This has important ramifications in eSports, when an improvement of 0.1 second in reaction time could mean winning million dollar prize. Among other things, Modafinil also improves concentration and decision making skills, making it a suitable candidate for real-time strategy (RTS) games such as League of Legends or Dota2, where focus and response to changes in the game environment variables are essential to securing a victory. What’s even more surprising is that unlike the Olympics, no testing is done. Even if rigorous testing was done, based on the 12-15 hour half life of modafinil, the drug becomes almost untraceable in urine tests in as short as 3-7 days.

In fact, the use of Modafinil outside of competition may also yield significant benefits. For example, a study discovered that the drug provided a 22% increase in time to exhaustion, a metric used to calculate how long before one is exhausted to the point they cannot continue, as compared to a placebo. This means that eSports athletes can train harder, for longer, and perform faster. While caffeine provides similar effects in a lesser magnitude, it lasts for only about half as long as modafinil and may lead to anxiety in higher doses.

Given the medical literature of what we know about psychoactive stimulants like Modafinil, its a big question mark on how performance enhancing drugs will come into regulation within the domain of eSports. Granted that Modafinil shares significant similarities to regular sports in aspects of audience, training and commercial interest, why isn’t more being done to ensure a level playing field?

 

How safe is generic Provigil? (Modafinil)

Provigil is one of the most expensive drugs compared to its generics (Modafinil) due to a lack of alternatives. Provigil retails in the USA at US$ 10-20 per pill, because it enjoys patent protection. A patent is an exclusivity granted by way of market monopoly to compensate the pharmaceutical companies for their time and resources spent to develop the drug. It allows drug companies to enjoy greater profit to recoup the costs incurred when researching the drug. This forms the bulk of the cost in producing these drugs, because the actual chemical compounds can be synthesized at a very cheap rate. Generic drugs on the other hand, are usually not protected by patents, and usually sell for way cheaper.

Active v. Inactive Ingredients

Generic drugs such as Modafinil perform a similar function as their originals because they contain the same active ingredients. Active Ingredients are biologically active, and serve to deliver the key function of the drugs (in Modafinil’s case, promoting wakefulness). Any other compounds that do not serve this purpose are considered to be inactive ingredients. They are added for the purposes of formulation compatibility, which include helping to bind the ingredients, disintegrants, etc. In fact, clinical studies have concluded that more than 98% of generic drugs have less than 10% difference in their effectiveness as compared to their brand name counterparts. The study also outlines that generic drugs often outperform the originals. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has strict guidelines on approval when it comes to generic drugs, one of which is that all generic drugs must contain the same active ingredients. This is done to promote greater access to healthcare as generics are usually cheaper.

Reputable Manufacturers

While there is law regulating that active ingredients must be identical, there are significant risks from buying prescription drugs from unknown sources. One news outlet noted that in 2015, a raid in Los Angeles seized over 415,000 doses of counterfeit pharmaceuticals. There is no accountability when it comes to counterfeit pharmaceuticals, because the manufacturers masquerade another company’s identity and will not be too concerned with quality control. This produces a great risk of active compounds being tainted or diluted with unknown harmful substances. Some manufacturers go as far as to completely substitute the active ingredients for sugar.

As a consumer seeking affordable healthcare, you should do your due diligence and only buy from reputable sources. After all, its your health that is on the line.

*******

At duckdose, we sell generic Modafinil, (Modalert 200mg) manufactured by Sun Pharma, the 5th largest generics manufacturer based in India. We take careful efforts to verify all batches to ensure quality, so that you only get the good stuff. 

Modafinil: Elevating Mental Performance

 

It’s the closest thing to NZT-48, a fictional mental cognition enhancing drug in 2011 movie Limitless, except Modafinil is real and it exists today. While you won’t be popping pills and making millions on the Forex market, Modafinil has been clinically proven to temporarily:

  1. Improve brain cognition
  2. Improve working memory
  3. Shorten reaction time
  4. Reduce the effects of fatigue

Perhaps the most pronounced property of Modafinil is its ability to promote wakefulness. It achieves this through a couple of mechanisms:

Modafinil boosts Dopamine levels in the brain. Dopamine is a compound that acts as a neurotransmitter within our brains, regulating our pleasure and reward centers. Interestingly, Dopamine has functions similar to stimulants that increase communication between neurons. A 2010 study found a positive relationship between creativity and brain dopamine levels.

Serotonin levels are also boosted within the amygdala and frontal cortex. Serotonin is a chemical compound responsible for balancing our mood, and possesses the ability to help create new neurons (particularly helpful for improving memory)

Glutamate, an excitatory neurotransmitter, levels soar under the effects of modafinil, much like the effects under caffine. It is responsible for cognitive functions that include working memory and attention. On a long-term basis, glutamate plays a key role in forming associations between our brain’s neurons. Higher levels of glutamate increase our brain’s plasticity and is a key ingredient for learning.

Modafinil also impacts other brain peptides known as Orexins, or hypocretins, which are found in the mainly in the hypothalamus. When activated, they increase norepinephrine, histamine and dopamine in the respective areas which help promote wakefulness.

While Modafinil was first synthesized as a treatment for narcolepsy and excessive sleepiness caused by disorders such as sleep apnea, its properties are increasingly being to improve day to day functioning. Avid, long-time supporters of such “smart drugs” include American entrepreneur Dave Asprey, who details how he added 18 points of IQ by using Modafinil in conjunction with brain training programs.

The recommended dose for Modafinil is 200mg once a day, up to a maximum of 400mg. It should be ingested at least an hour prior for best effects, with or without food. As it functions similar to a stimulant, one should exercise caution to adhere to recommended doses to minimize side effects.

How Safe is Modafinil
Modafinil received its approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1998 and thus its long-term effects are not fully understood. Side effects include headaches, nausea, dizziness and difficulty in sleeping. Modafinil has also been known to reduce the efficacy of contraceptive pills.